Sauerkraut (crout, kraut)

       For pickling are good the cabbage heads mainly late (and mid-season) breeds of cabbage. For getting 100kg  of sauerkraut, is required:
- Fresh cabbage - 120kg,
- Carrots - 3,5kg
- Salts - 2,5kg.
At pickling cabbage it is better to use wooden casks (butts).
       At temperature 18 - 20°C fermentation begins for the second days. If the temperature is low, fermentation can proceed two-three months and lead to product damage. The best temperature for cabbage storage is 0°C.
       For the prevention of blushing, mucoiding, sauerkraut darkening and sauerkraut softening, is necessary, that fermentation passed at more high temperature, and Sauerkraut storage - at low temperature. The cabbage should be covered by brine.
       Indoors, where Sauerkraut is stored, there should not be persuasive smells. For this purpose the storehouse should be aired regularly. In a storage time not less than three times a month is to wash in hot water the weight and to delete a mould from the Sauerkraut.
       The temperature above + 5°C operates on a 
Sauerkraut negatively. It is necessary to prevent freeze of Sauerkraut.
       It is not recommended to use iodide salt to 
Sauerkraut, as it worsens colour of a product.
       In the spring the container in which are stored 
Sauerkraut, it is desirable to cool with snow or ice.

Pickled carrots, pickled beet and Pickled pepper

       For pickling of carrots and a beet are used 3-4%-s', to pepper - 5-6%-s' brine. The listed pickles are stored in a cold premise.

Correctly to pickle tomatoes
Correctly to pickle cucumbers

Correctly to pickle tomatoes

The pickle of tomatoes is similar to pickle of cucumbers. The best tomatoes for pickles are dense, not became overripe. Tomatoes should be pickled in container no more 50 liters
To 10kg of tomatoes add:
- 150-200g fennel,
- 5-10g - red hot pepper,
- 50g - leaves of a horse-radish,
-100g - leaves of a black currant,
- No more than 50g - mixes of a basil, etc.
Concentration of salt for red tomatoes should be 700g, and for green and brown - 600g on 10l waters. At storage in a cellar, concentration of salt should be 800g. If to store pickled tomatoes at the raised temperature, tomatoes become soft, their acidity raises.

Correctly to pickle cucumbers.

Good pickled cucumber can be get, having provided:
- Well wash cucumbers and container in which the salting will be made;
- Normal temperature for fermentation - 15-22°C.
The best container for pickles of cucumbers is oak casks. Casks should be washed up carefully with brushes at first with cold water, and then with hot 10%-s' solution of soda ash or slack lime. After that it is necessary to steam the Casks well and some times to rinse. Dry the Cleaned Casks. At pickling in casks from soft wood it is recommended to put leaves of a cherry or a black currant.
Enameled ware or glassware also it is necessary to wash out and scald well.
Cucumbers should be pickled not later, than in 24 hours after their harvesting. The most comprehensible concentration of salt is 600-700g on 10liter of water. On every 10kg of cucumbers is recommended 500-600g spices:
Fresh fennel - 300g,
Garlic - 30g,
Horse-radish - 50g,
Leaves of parsley,
Celery, etc.
After the termination of fermentation of cucumbers send on storage. The more close temperature of cucumbers to 0°C, their quality will high.
To avoid a mould on pickles, we recommend applying known means: fill in a sack 35-40g of dry mustard and place it between pickles. They keep freshness and do not become covered by a mould.
The mouldy pickles can be "cured". For this purpose they should be washed out in salty water, to move in other, clean ware and to fill in with anew prepared, stronger brine.

Quality of vegetables. Ways of preservation.

It is known that such vegetables as salad, spinach, cucumbers, a garden radish, bunch carrots, green onions very quickly lose in the summer a salable condition and taste. To avoid it, we recommend using one of two elementary ways, allowing keeping quality of vegetables.
The first way consists at storage of production in use of food ice (grinded), which interleaves vegetables. As getting ice not always possible in the summer, it is possible to store vegetables in polyethylene sacks. Before putting cucumbers in polyethylene sacks, a garden radish, carrots, it is necessary to wash up them, cut off roots at onions, tops of garden radish and carrots. At temperature +15 - 20°C and the humidity of air 70 - 80%, vegetables stored in polyethylene sacks much longer. Sacks should be fastened, but not very tight.

To keep a garden radish till a new crop

Up to New Year it is possible to keep root crops of a garden radish of certain breeds, for example: Dungan, Red giant. Seeds of these garden radishes are sow calculatingly to harvest some days before autumn frosts. At the root crops which have been selected for storage (overripe and frozen ones are deleted), cut off a tops and roots, and then them stack on layers, interstratify each layer by wet sand. Periodically it is necessary to humidify sand. Store sanded a garden radish at temperature plus 1-2°C.

Afterripening of a tomato and how it is spent

Sometimes the part of fruits of a tomato does not ripen on a root. Such fruits it is necessary submit to afterripening in aired and light storehouses where the temperature keeps 20-25°С.
The fruits intended for afterripening cannot be overdone on bushes. Touched by frosts, they for afterripening are unsuitable. Fruits can hang on bushes (on a root) if the temperature of air is above 5°С at night. For Afterripening are suitable healthy fruits, without mechanical damages.
Some days before frosts it is possible to dig out bushes of a tomato with green fruits and, without shaking the soil from roots, to suspend them as rots upward in storehouses. In such conditions fruits are gradually poured and ripen


How to keep a crop of a potato, vegetables and fruits a cucurbitaceous of cultures with the minimum losses ? To grow up a good harvest of a potato and vegetables is just half-affairs. It is necessary to know how to keep it. At skilful storage the potato, cabbage, root crops, onions, garlic and other vegetables do not lose food qualities. To store this production it is possible in cellars, undergrounds, cellars, trenches. Premises preliminary should be aired, cleaned and disinfected well - to spray a potassium permanganate solution (6g on a bucket of warm water) or formalin (10g 40%-s' formalin on a water bucket). After their disinfection it is necessary to whitewash a lime with addition of 5% copper vitriol, then to dry. For long storage mature vegetables a keeping capacity of the plant breeds, not having wounds, cuts, bruises are suitable only. The same requirements lay claim and to a potato. Otherwise production will quickly deteriorate. The dug out potato should be dried well and this very day to put on storage. To store a potato is better in trenches. The trenches should be dig on the elevated sites protected from cold winds, with low level of ground waters. Optimum width of a trench is 60-70sm, depth - 70-80sm, length - any. The trench bottom is covered with boards, straw, and walls with fix with slabs or poles. The potato is interleaved with sand. Between the top layer of potato and trench shelter necessarily there should be an air layer. For this purpose over a trench put boards or poles. Cover trenches at first with straw a layer to 50sm, and then with soil a layer to 50sm. To store a potato it is possible and in dry aired rooms where the temperature keeps within plus 1-3°С. Fall of temperature to zero degrees is undesirable in order to avoid accumulation in tubers of the sugar, which worsening their taste. If at storage the top layer of a potato is wet, it is necessary to cover it with bast (mat, straw) which after humidifying replace with new ones. At first the potato, and also vegetables emit a lot of heat. It should be deleted with airing of rooms. For storage of white cabbage of late-ripening and with good keeping capacity types the temperature should be from 0 to - 1°С, relative humidity of air about 95%. At rise of temperature rooms should be air. Healthy dense heads of cabbage with green covering leaves and without stumps store in bulk, on racks (regiments), in boxes-cages. Care of cabbage at storage consists in regular survey of heads of cabbages and removal decayed, sprouted ones. To smooth out heads of cabbage before selling it is not recommended, as it promotes development of grey decay. At strong development of grey decay it is necessary to achieve all measures for temperature decrease. Root crops dig out in dry weather and for some time leave on a site for drying, and then cut off tops of vegetables. Root crops also store in trenches. The width of tranches for carrots storage is 50-60sm, for a beet - 70-80sm, depth - 70-80sm. After a lying of root crops for storage, cover the trench, as well as potato. It is possible to store root crops and in the elementary storehouses. Thus a beet store in bulk, carrots pour with sand. Root crops can be storage in open polyethylene bags with capacity 30-35kg, and carrots well remain also at level-by-level sprinkle it with chalk or an onions peel. The best temperature for root crops is from 0 to + 1°С, relative humidity of air - 85-90%. It is not necessary to dump turnip in a cellar a heap in order to avoid withering of root crops. Turnip and a radish is better for storing layer-by-layer, interstratify by sand, in not so wet and not so dry place. The ripened and well dried onions without tops keep within winter in dry rooms at temperature from - 1°С to - 3°С and humidity of air 80-90%. Also, the onions are well stored at the room temperature, especially plaited as "plaits" suspended to a ceiling, but thus its natural losses from shrinkage of bulbs can be considerable. If the onions start to sprout, it is necessary to strengthen ventilation, to reduce humidity of air. How to keep garlic? First of all, it is necessary to tell that are long stored only in time cropped and well dried bulbs. The bulbs cropped ahead of time are friable, and overripe ones lose integument films and at drying they are scattered. Neither those, nor others (bulbs) for long storage are suitable. It is better to crop garlic when the bottom leaves will dry up, and top will turn yellow. At dug out bulbs it is not necessary to cut off roots, it is enough to clear of them of the soil. After drying garlic store in a room with temperature from - 1°С to - 3°С and humidity of air - 80-90%; Well keep bulbs at tying them in wreaths or "plaits" which, as well as onions, suspend. For storage of water-melons and melons are used rooms of land type or basement type (it is possible to keep a necessary temperature and humidity of air). Premises equip with racks in width of 1,5m in four-five circles on distance not less than 50sm one from another (between racks and storehouse walls leave pass), ventilating system, and heating (if necessary). Keeping capacity of cucurbitaceous fruits (crops) depends on many factors, in particular from structure of pulp, its chemical compound, etc. Fruits with dense pulp, the high maintenance of pectin substances are kept longer time, than fruits with friable pulp. An optimum period of storage water-melons with high keeping capacity is three months. For store it is good breeds of a water-melon: Zimniy 344, Kuzybay 30, Hait-Qora, Sputnik, etc. Planting of water-melons on easy sandy soils much more strengthens durability of a cortex (bark) that positively affects on keeping capacity and transportability of fruits. Irrigation essentially influences on keeping capacity of water-melons as well. At an irrigation durability of a bark decreases. Therefore two-three weeks prior to harvesting watering are desirable stop. For long storage prepare only fruits of late-ripening breeds. Water-melons are cropped in solar weather with fruit stems. They are stored on racks on a soft laying in one layer so that fruits did not adjoin, on hangers in grids or in bags from various materials. The majority of Melon growers recommend storing of Water-melons at temperature from + 1°С to - 3°С and humidity of air 80-85%. The fruits of a melon intended for storage, remove necessarily with fruit stems in length 2-3sm, cutting off them with sharp knife. Green, unripe melons to put on storage does not follow, as they contain not enough sugar, do not ripen and quickly rot. The fruits separated from a lash put in one layer in the field and maintain on the sun during 10-15 days. After four-five days fruits overturn so that that party which was on the earth, has been turned to the sun. In this time in fruits there are some physiological processes that promote their increase keeping capacity. After that melons are moved in storehouse. To transport them follows on vehicles or on tractor trailers a layer in one fruit, it is obligatory on a soft laying. The best temperature of air in storehouses for melons: 2-4°С, humidity of air 70-80%. At higher humidity of air fruits are damaged by fungoid illnesses. Melon fruits store differently: on racks, in boxes or suspend. The suspended melons are stored better as thus on fruits are not formed « bedsores» that is very difficult for avoiding at other ways of storage. For this purpose in storehouse to columns attach in four-five circles of a pole in diameter 10-12sm on distance 80-90sm one from another to which suspend in grids melon fruits. Racks equip from two sides of storehouse, in three-four tiers on distance of 0,5m one from another. Racks cover with dry chaff or sawdust. On them put fruits in one layer so that they did not contact each other. Even better on racks for each fruit to do cells and to spread in them a sacking. It is possible to store melons in boxes. For this purpose a box bottom cover straw a layer 10-15sm and carefully stack fruits in one layer. In Central Asia melon fruits often store in storehouses of local type. They represent wattle and daub house constructions with thick (to 1,2m) walls and an earthen roof. For airing in walls do the apertures covered with special covers. In such storehouses in the autumn the temperature keeps at level 10-15°C, in the winter decreases to 4-7°С. In Central Asia store melons on racks from hardly tense wide-meshed grids or in rings from leaves upland cane that provides the best air circulation. For short-term storage fruits of breeds are suitable: mid-season: Ich-qzyl, Ich-qzyl large-fruited 1233, Kokcha 588 (Kukcha 588), Aq-kaun 557 (Aqqavun 557), Koktinny 1087, Chuli, Aq-gulyabi 803, etc. The fruits with highest keeping capacity possess autumn-winter and winter breeds: Qari-qiz 700 (karykyz), Qo’y-bosh 476 (kuybash), Qora-qand (karakant), orange Gulobi, Qora-puchak 3744, Umurvaqi 3748, Oq-qosh (akkash), the yellow Qora-qutur (karakutur), etc. For long storage of a pumpkin it is necessary to select fruits in a full maturity, with a fruit stem. It is necessary to transport a pumpkin a layer in one fruit, a fruit stem up. For storage it is possible to use vegetable storehouses where there is a possibility to maintain optimum temperature. Optimum temperature for storage of a pumpkin is 8-10°С, humidity of air is 80-85%. The fruits cropped in dry solar weather, are stored much better, than cropped in cloudy and especially in rainy weather. Store fruits on racks, covered with straw, a fruit stem up, so that they did not adjoin. Sometimes a pumpkin store in straw or hay ricks. For this purpose before straw packing do a wooden skeleton in width 1.5-2m, in height 2-2.5m and put straw on it. In the formed corridor stack a pumpkin, interleaving with straw


On water-melon and melon leaves there are roundish or oval stains of yellowish -brown or pinkish colour.
Such signs of defeat of plants are characteristic for the illness known under the name Anthracnose. Anthracnose is extended everywhere in areas with the raised humidity of air. In the years favorable for development of Anthracnose, the illness does notable harm to a water-melon and a melon.
The stains which have appeared on leaves gradually increase. At strong development of Anthracnose stains can capture whole sheet. On defeated leaves fragmentary apertures are formed, leaves turn yellow, are braided and dry up.
Pressed damp stains on defeated bines gradually turning to ulcers are formed. Bines in defeat places get thin also break off. The defeated fruits often do not develop, get the ugly form. The generated fruits quickly rot and grow mouldy.
Measures of struggle against Anthracnose :
- Destruction of the vegetative rests,
- Observance of alternation of plants,
- Moderate humidifying of soil,
- Cultivation of a sowing furrow after each watering,
- Spraying of plants with 1 % Bordeaux mixture,
- Dusting with powdered sulphur (150g on 100м2). The first time a plant should be processed at occurrence of signs of Anthracnose, then in formation of bines, at fruit inception with an interval in 10-15 days, but not later than 20 days prior to harvesting.
Timely processing of plants considerably reduces their disease with Anthracnose.

Powdery mildew (mealy dew)

This illness cucurbitaceous plants causes occurrence on the bottom party of leaves of a mealy taint.
Mealy dew is one of the most widespread illnesses of cucurbitaceous plants.
In areas with a hot climate signs of mealy dew usually appear before flowering of plants in the shaded places. Spots of a mealy taint at first are small - usually no more 1sm in diameter. Gradually spots join, come over to the top part of a sheet plate. At strong development of mealy dew stains cover all sheet plate. Leaves grow brown, become fragile; their edges are wrapped up and dry up. Mealy dew defeats not only the leaves, but also footstalks, and bines.
Arrangements of struggle against mealy dew:
- Observance of alternation of plants,
- Destruction of defeated after harvesting the plant rests,
- Spraying of plants at occurrence of first signs of illness by 80 %-s' moistened powder of sulphur (320 - 400g preparation on 100м2). Spraying is repeated through 10 - 12 days. Last spraying is carrying out 20 days prior to harvesting.

Vascular wilt.

Vascular wilt wither the cotyledons and the first present leaves of a water-melon and a melon, keeping green coloring, become thin a root neck, on root hairs there are brown stains.
The harm put Vascular wilt, in a greater degree depends on terms of its occurrence, a cultivated grade and other factors. Most strongly Vascular wilt defeats middle - and late-ripening plants.
At defeat of plants, except productivity decrease, sugar content, fragrance, juiciness and storage characteristic of fruits decrease. Vascular wilt is shown during the period from shoots before formation of the second-third present sheet, during time of ripening and maturing of fruits.
Leaves wither and adult plants, also without losing green colouring. Usually lashes of one plant, as a rule, wither simultaneously. Plants depending on a place and defeat degree perish within two-eight days after occurrence of external signs of disease. At withering of plants of a melon are marked lighter a sheet plate (chlorotic), change of its shade to grayish-silvery and spottiness of leaves.
Infecting agent is the fungus fusarium oxiporum. Infection of plants occurs through root system. Because the infection collects in soil, it is not necessary to cultivate cucurbitaceous agricultures on the same field within several years. It is not recommended to place cucurbitaceous agricultures also after a potato, a tomato and an eggplant.
Fusarium intensively grows at temperature 25 - 30°C. Its growth is slowed down at temperature above 35°C, stops at 5°C. Optimum for growth of this fungus humidity of the soil equal 50 - 80% of a full field moisture capacity. The fungus can grow and develop on the salted soils.
At excessive watering, flooding of plants, their cultivation on heavy soils with close bedded ground waters fructifying plants of a melon wither in the end of July - August.
Measures of struggle against Vascular wilt:
- Returning cucurbitaceous agricultures on a former place not earlier than in six-seven years;
- Cleaning and burning of the rests of defeated plants;
- Deep under-winter ploughing;
- Treatment of seeds with solution 40%-s' formalin within 5min and two-hour soaking;
- Crops of seeds of a water-melon on easy sandy soils and melons - on easy loamy soils with deep occurrence of ground waters;
- Crops of seeds on high ridges on which root necks of plants are above a line drench of soils;
- Steady, short watering, without excessive humidifying of soil, loosening of an irrigation furrow after each watering;
- Spraying of plants during the period of budding - the beginnings of formation of fruits with 5%-s' extract from superphosphate or a solution of chloride potassium.

Karadrina (the noctuid small)

Caterpillars of Karadrina (dark-brown, length to 30mm) damage a tomato, a beet, a potato, pepper, peas, cabbage, an onions, garlic and many other agricultural plants. Caterpillars of Karadrina eat leaves, and on pepper, an eggplant and a tomato eat fruits. Wingspans of butterflies are 30 – 34mm. On grayish-brown forward wings is available kidney-shaped and a rusty round stain with a lightish border. Back wings are pinky-white. Quantity of generations from two to six (chrysalides and butterflies winter).
It is possible in struggle against Caterpillars of Karadrina to do bait crops of lucerne along the edges of a site, and then, to mow down it, to burn.

The Cut worm. How to protect plants?

       To vegetable cultures the big harm is caused by the Cut worm (noctuid): winter, exclamatory, wheaten, Icelandic, a black cutworm, etc. Caterpillars of these noctuids are grayish-earthy. They behave nocturnalism. They cut stalks, footstalks and gnaw out root crops.
       In struggle against the Cut worm it is necessary:
- First of all, to destroy weeds,
- It is good to dig over a site in the autumn.
       It is possible to catch butterflies of the Cut worm in special pans, which put on supports in height nearby 1m. In them pour water with treacle (3:1) and add a few yeast. Fermented treacle involves butterflies, they get in pans and sink in them (it is necessary to collect a Cut worm in the mornings). Caterpillars collect manually near plants (in the top layer of earth).

Noctuid-“gamma”. How not to admit occurrence Noctuid-“gamma” on a site?

       Noctuid-"gamma" it is extended almost in many areas. On dark-brown forward wings of the butterfly Noctuid-"gamma" (back yellowish with a dark border) the whitish stain with the shine, reminding the Greek letter "gamma" is visible. Caterpillars Noctuid-"gamma" greenish with eight light strips on a back and yellowish lateral, a head brown-green; length of their body nearby 30 mm.
       The butterfly Noctuid-"gamma" puts eggs on a potato, peas, a beet, salad, and also other cultural and weeds plants. Caterpillars Noctuid-"gamma" strongly damage leaves. At stirring of leaves young caterpillars Noctuid-"gamma" fall on the earth on gossamer, and adults fall, being rolled by a ringlet. Number of generations: two-three.
       For not to admit occurrence Noctuid-"gamma" on a site:
- It is necessary to destroy as soon as possible weeds on which leaves the butterfly can put eggs,
- If one site is infected, and another is not infected, not infected site dig round channels (25-30 sm) with steep walls where caterpillars creep.
- It is possible to shake caterpillars from plants and then to destroy. It is noticed that hens (poultry) willingly eat them.