Sauerkraut (crout, kraut)

       For pickling are good the cabbage heads mainly late (and mid-season) breeds of cabbage. For getting 100kg  of sauerkraut, is required:
- Fresh cabbage - 120kg,
- Carrots - 3,5kg
- Salts - 2,5kg.
At pickling cabbage it is better to use wooden casks (butts).
       At temperature 18 - 20°C fermentation begins for the second days. If the temperature is low, fermentation can proceed two-three months and lead to product damage. The best temperature for cabbage storage is 0°C.
       For the prevention of blushing, mucoiding, sauerkraut darkening and sauerkraut softening, is necessary, that fermentation passed at more high temperature, and Sauerkraut storage - at low temperature. The cabbage should be covered by brine.
       Indoors, where Sauerkraut is stored, there should not be persuasive smells. For this purpose the storehouse should be aired regularly. In a storage time not less than three times a month is to wash in hot water the weight and to delete a mould from the Sauerkraut.
       The temperature above + 5°C operates on a 
Sauerkraut negatively. It is necessary to prevent freeze of Sauerkraut.
       It is not recommended to use iodide salt to 
Sauerkraut, as it worsens colour of a product.
       In the spring the container in which are stored 
Sauerkraut, it is desirable to cool with snow or ice.

Pickled carrots, pickled beet and Pickled pepper

       For pickling of carrots and a beet are used 3-4%-s', to pepper - 5-6%-s' brine. The listed pickles are stored in a cold premise.

Correctly to pickle tomatoes
Correctly to pickle cucumbers

Correctly to pickle tomatoes

The pickle of tomatoes is similar to pickle of cucumbers. The best tomatoes for pickles are dense, not became overripe. Tomatoes should be pickled in container no more 50 liters
To 10kg of tomatoes add:
- 150-200g fennel,
- 5-10g - red hot pepper,
- 50g - leaves of a horse-radish,
-100g - leaves of a black currant,
- No more than 50g - mixes of a basil, etc.
Concentration of salt for red tomatoes should be 700g, and for green and brown - 600g on 10l waters. At storage in a cellar, concentration of salt should be 800g. If to store pickled tomatoes at the raised temperature, tomatoes become soft, their acidity raises.

Correctly to pickle cucumbers.

Good pickled cucumber can be get, having provided:
- Well wash cucumbers and container in which the salting will be made;
- Normal temperature for fermentation - 15-22°C.
The best container for pickles of cucumbers is oak casks. Casks should be washed up carefully with brushes at first with cold water, and then with hot 10%-s' solution of soda ash or slack lime. After that it is necessary to steam the Casks well and some times to rinse. Dry the Cleaned Casks. At pickling in casks from soft wood it is recommended to put leaves of a cherry or a black currant.
Enameled ware or glassware also it is necessary to wash out and scald well.
Cucumbers should be pickled not later, than in 24 hours after their harvesting. The most comprehensible concentration of salt is 600-700g on 10liter of water. On every 10kg of cucumbers is recommended 500-600g spices:
Fresh fennel - 300g,
Garlic - 30g,
Horse-radish - 50g,
Leaves of parsley,
Celery, etc.
After the termination of fermentation of cucumbers send on storage. The more close temperature of cucumbers to 0°C, their quality will high.
To avoid a mould on pickles, we recommend applying known means: fill in a sack 35-40g of dry mustard and place it between pickles. They keep freshness and do not become covered by a mould.
The mouldy pickles can be "cured". For this purpose they should be washed out in salty water, to move in other, clean ware and to fill in with anew prepared, stronger brine.

Quality of vegetables. Ways of preservation.

It is known that such vegetables as salad, spinach, cucumbers, a garden radish, bunch carrots, green onions very quickly lose in the summer a salable condition and taste. To avoid it, we recommend using one of two elementary ways, allowing keeping quality of vegetables.
The first way consists at storage of production in use of food ice (grinded), which interleaves vegetables. As getting ice not always possible in the summer, it is possible to store vegetables in polyethylene sacks. Before putting cucumbers in polyethylene sacks, a garden radish, carrots, it is necessary to wash up them, cut off roots at onions, tops of garden radish and carrots. At temperature +15 - 20°C and the humidity of air 70 - 80%, vegetables stored in polyethylene sacks much longer. Sacks should be fastened, but not very tight.

To keep a garden radish till a new crop

Up to New Year it is possible to keep root crops of a garden radish of certain breeds, for example: Dungan, Red giant. Seeds of these garden radishes are sow calculatingly to harvest some days before autumn frosts. At the root crops which have been selected for storage (overripe and frozen ones are deleted), cut off a tops and roots, and then them stack on layers, interstratify each layer by wet sand. Periodically it is necessary to humidify sand. Store sanded a garden radish at temperature plus 1-2°C.

Afterripening of a tomato and how it is spent

Sometimes the part of fruits of a tomato does not ripen on a root. Such fruits it is necessary submit to afterripening in aired and light storehouses where the temperature keeps 20-25°С.
The fruits intended for afterripening cannot be overdone on bushes. Touched by frosts, they for afterripening are unsuitable. Fruits can hang on bushes (on a root) if the temperature of air is above 5°С at night. For Afterripening are suitable healthy fruits, without mechanical damages.
Some days before frosts it is possible to dig out bushes of a tomato with green fruits and, without shaking the soil from roots, to suspend them as rots upward in storehouses. In such conditions fruits are gradually poured and ripen


How to keep a crop of a potato, vegetables and fruits a cucurbitaceous of cultures with the minimum losses ? To grow up a good harvest of a potato and vegetables is just half-affairs. It is necessary to know how to keep it. At skilful storage the potato, cabbage, root crops, onions, garlic and other vegetables do not lose food qualities. To store this production it is possible in cellars, undergrounds, cellars, trenches. Premises preliminary should be aired, cleaned and disinfected well - to spray a potassium permanganate solution (6g on a bucket of warm water) or formalin (10g 40%-s' formalin on a water bucket). After their disinfection it is necessary to whitewash a lime with addition of 5% copper vitriol, then to dry. For long storage mature vegetables a keeping capacity of the plant breeds, not having wounds, cuts, bruises are suitable only. The same requirements lay claim and to a potato. Otherwise production will quickly deteriorate. The dug out potato should be dried well and this very day to put on storage. To store a potato is better in trenches. The trenches should be dig on the elevated sites protected from cold winds, with low level of ground waters. Optimum width of a trench is 60-70sm, depth - 70-80sm, length - any. The trench bottom is covered with boards, straw, and walls with fix with slabs or poles. The potato is interleaved with sand. Between the top layer of potato and trench shelter necessarily there should be an air layer. For this purpose over a trench put boards or poles. Cover trenches at first with straw a layer to 50sm, and then with soil a layer to 50sm. To store a potato it is possible and in dry aired rooms where the temperature keeps within plus 1-3°С. Fall of temperature to zero degrees is undesirable in order to avoid accumulation in tubers of the sugar, which worsening their taste. If at storage the top layer of a potato is wet, it is necessary to cover it with bast (mat, straw) which after humidifying replace with new ones. At first the potato, and also vegetables emit a lot of heat. It should be deleted with airing of rooms. For storage of white cabbage of late-ripening and with good keeping capacity types the temperature should be from 0 to - 1°С, relative humidity of air about 95%. At rise of temperature rooms should be air. Healthy dense heads of cabbage with green covering leaves and without stumps store in bulk, on racks (regiments), in boxes-cages. Care of cabbage at storage consists in regular survey of heads of cabbages and removal decayed, sprouted ones. To smooth out heads of cabbage before selling it is not recommended, as it promotes development of grey decay. At strong development of grey decay it is necessary to achieve all measures for temperature decrease. Root crops dig out in dry weather and for some time leave on a site for drying, and then cut off tops of vegetables. Root crops also store in trenches. The width of tranches for carrots storage is 50-60sm, for a beet - 70-80sm, depth - 70-80sm. After a lying of root crops for storage, cover the trench, as well as potato. It is possible to store root crops and in the elementary storehouses. Thus a beet store in bulk, carrots pour with sand. Root crops can be storage in open polyethylene bags with capacity 30-35kg, and carrots well remain also at level-by-level sprinkle it with chalk or an onions peel. The best temperature for root crops is from 0 to + 1°С, relative humidity of air - 85-90%. It is not necessary to dump turnip in a cellar a heap in order to avoid withering of root crops. Turnip and a radish is better for storing layer-by-layer, interstratify by sand, in not so wet and not so dry place. The ripened and well dried onions without tops keep within winter in dry rooms at temperature from - 1°С to - 3°С and humidity of air 80-90%. Also, the onions are well stored at the room temperature, especially plaited as "plaits" suspended to a ceiling, but thus its natural losses from shrinkage of bulbs can be considerable. If the onions start to sprout, it is necessary to strengthen ventilation, to reduce humidity of air. How to keep garlic? First of all, it is necessary to tell that are long stored only in time cropped and well dried bulbs. The bulbs cropped ahead of time are friable, and overripe ones lose integument films and at drying they are scattered. Neither those, nor others (bulbs) for long storage are suitable. It is better to crop garlic when the bottom leaves will dry up, and top will turn yellow. At dug out bulbs it is not necessary to cut off roots, it is enough to clear of them of the soil. After drying garlic store in a room with temperature from - 1°С to - 3°С and humidity of air - 80-90%; Well keep bulbs at tying them in wreaths or "plaits" which, as well as onions, suspend. For storage of water-melons and melons are used rooms of land type or basement type (it is possible to keep a necessary temperature and humidity of air). Premises equip with racks in width of 1,5m in four-five circles on distance not less than 50sm one from another (between racks and storehouse walls leave pass), ventilating system, and heating (if necessary). Keeping capacity of cucurbitaceous fruits (crops) depends on many factors, in particular from structure of pulp, its chemical compound, etc. Fruits with dense pulp, the high maintenance of pectin substances are kept longer time, than fruits with friable pulp. An optimum period of storage water-melons with high keeping capacity is three months. For store it is good breeds of a water-melon: Zimniy 344, Kuzybay 30, Hait-Qora, Sputnik, etc. Planting of water-melons on easy sandy soils much more strengthens durability of a cortex (bark) that positively affects on keeping capacity and transportability of fruits. Irrigation essentially influences on keeping capacity of water-melons as well. At an irrigation durability of a bark decreases. Therefore two-three weeks prior to harvesting watering are desirable stop. For long storage prepare only fruits of late-ripening breeds. Water-melons are cropped in solar weather with fruit stems. They are stored on racks on a soft laying in one layer so that fruits did not adjoin, on hangers in grids or in bags from various materials. The majority of Melon growers recommend storing of Water-melons at temperature from + 1°С to - 3°С and humidity of air 80-85%. The fruits of a melon intended for storage, remove necessarily with fruit stems in length 2-3sm, cutting off them with sharp knife. Green, unripe melons to put on storage does not follow, as they contain not enough sugar, do not ripen and quickly rot. The fruits separated from a lash put in one layer in the field and maintain on the sun during 10-15 days. After four-five days fruits overturn so that that party which was on the earth, has been turned to the sun. In this time in fruits there are some physiological processes that promote their increase keeping capacity. After that melons are moved in storehouse. To transport them follows on vehicles or on tractor trailers a layer in one fruit, it is obligatory on a soft laying. The best temperature of air in storehouses for melons: 2-4°С, humidity of air 70-80%. At higher humidity of air fruits are damaged by fungoid illnesses. Melon fruits store differently: on racks, in boxes or suspend. The suspended melons are stored better as thus on fruits are not formed « bedsores» that is very difficult for avoiding at other ways of storage. For this purpose in storehouse to columns attach in four-five circles of a pole in diameter 10-12sm on distance 80-90sm one from another to which suspend in grids melon fruits. Racks equip from two sides of storehouse, in three-four tiers on distance of 0,5m one from another. Racks cover with dry chaff or sawdust. On them put fruits in one layer so that they did not contact each other. Even better on racks for each fruit to do cells and to spread in them a sacking. It is possible to store melons in boxes. For this purpose a box bottom cover straw a layer 10-15sm and carefully stack fruits in one layer. In Central Asia melon fruits often store in storehouses of local type. They represent wattle and daub house constructions with thick (to 1,2m) walls and an earthen roof. For airing in walls do the apertures covered with special covers. In such storehouses in the autumn the temperature keeps at level 10-15°C, in the winter decreases to 4-7°С. In Central Asia store melons on racks from hardly tense wide-meshed grids or in rings from leaves upland cane that provides the best air circulation. For short-term storage fruits of breeds are suitable: mid-season: Ich-qzyl, Ich-qzyl large-fruited 1233, Kokcha 588 (Kukcha 588), Aq-kaun 557 (Aqqavun 557), Koktinny 1087, Chuli, Aq-gulyabi 803, etc. The fruits with highest keeping capacity possess autumn-winter and winter breeds: Qari-qiz 700 (karykyz), Qo’y-bosh 476 (kuybash), Qora-qand (karakant), orange Gulobi, Qora-puchak 3744, Umurvaqi 3748, Oq-qosh (akkash), the yellow Qora-qutur (karakutur), etc. For long storage of a pumpkin it is necessary to select fruits in a full maturity, with a fruit stem. It is necessary to transport a pumpkin a layer in one fruit, a fruit stem up. For storage it is possible to use vegetable storehouses where there is a possibility to maintain optimum temperature. Optimum temperature for storage of a pumpkin is 8-10°С, humidity of air is 80-85%. The fruits cropped in dry solar weather, are stored much better, than cropped in cloudy and especially in rainy weather. Store fruits on racks, covered with straw, a fruit stem up, so that they did not adjoin. Sometimes a pumpkin store in straw or hay ricks. For this purpose before straw packing do a wooden skeleton in width 1.5-2m, in height 2-2.5m and put straw on it. In the formed corridor stack a pumpkin, interleaving with straw


On water-melon and melon leaves there are roundish or oval stains of yellowish -brown or pinkish colour.
Such signs of defeat of plants are characteristic for the illness known under the name Anthracnose. Anthracnose is extended everywhere in areas with the raised humidity of air. In the years favorable for development of Anthracnose, the illness does notable harm to a water-melon and a melon.
The stains which have appeared on leaves gradually increase. At strong development of Anthracnose stains can capture whole sheet. On defeated leaves fragmentary apertures are formed, leaves turn yellow, are braided and dry up.
Pressed damp stains on defeated bines gradually turning to ulcers are formed. Bines in defeat places get thin also break off. The defeated fruits often do not develop, get the ugly form. The generated fruits quickly rot and grow mouldy.
Measures of struggle against Anthracnose :
- Destruction of the vegetative rests,
- Observance of alternation of plants,
- Moderate humidifying of soil,
- Cultivation of a sowing furrow after each watering,
- Spraying of plants with 1 % Bordeaux mixture,
- Dusting with powdered sulphur (150g on 100м2). The first time a plant should be processed at occurrence of signs of Anthracnose, then in formation of bines, at fruit inception with an interval in 10-15 days, but not later than 20 days prior to harvesting.
Timely processing of plants considerably reduces their disease with Anthracnose.

Powdery mildew (mealy dew)

This illness cucurbitaceous plants causes occurrence on the bottom party of leaves of a mealy taint.
Mealy dew is one of the most widespread illnesses of cucurbitaceous plants.
In areas with a hot climate signs of mealy dew usually appear before flowering of plants in the shaded places. Spots of a mealy taint at first are small - usually no more 1sm in diameter. Gradually spots join, come over to the top part of a sheet plate. At strong development of mealy dew stains cover all sheet plate. Leaves grow brown, become fragile; their edges are wrapped up and dry up. Mealy dew defeats not only the leaves, but also footstalks, and bines.
Arrangements of struggle against mealy dew:
- Observance of alternation of plants,
- Destruction of defeated after harvesting the plant rests,
- Spraying of plants at occurrence of first signs of illness by 80 %-s' moistened powder of sulphur (320 - 400g preparation on 100м2). Spraying is repeated through 10 - 12 days. Last spraying is carrying out 20 days prior to harvesting.

Vascular wilt.

Vascular wilt wither the cotyledons and the first present leaves of a water-melon and a melon, keeping green coloring, become thin a root neck, on root hairs there are brown stains.
The harm put Vascular wilt, in a greater degree depends on terms of its occurrence, a cultivated grade and other factors. Most strongly Vascular wilt defeats middle - and late-ripening plants.
At defeat of plants, except productivity decrease, sugar content, fragrance, juiciness and storage characteristic of fruits decrease. Vascular wilt is shown during the period from shoots before formation of the second-third present sheet, during time of ripening and maturing of fruits.
Leaves wither and adult plants, also without losing green colouring. Usually lashes of one plant, as a rule, wither simultaneously. Plants depending on a place and defeat degree perish within two-eight days after occurrence of external signs of disease. At withering of plants of a melon are marked lighter a sheet plate (chlorotic), change of its shade to grayish-silvery and spottiness of leaves.
Infecting agent is the fungus fusarium oxiporum. Infection of plants occurs through root system. Because the infection collects in soil, it is not necessary to cultivate cucurbitaceous agricultures on the same field within several years. It is not recommended to place cucurbitaceous agricultures also after a potato, a tomato and an eggplant.
Fusarium intensively grows at temperature 25 - 30°C. Its growth is slowed down at temperature above 35°C, stops at 5°C. Optimum for growth of this fungus humidity of the soil equal 50 - 80% of a full field moisture capacity. The fungus can grow and develop on the salted soils.
At excessive watering, flooding of plants, their cultivation on heavy soils with close bedded ground waters fructifying plants of a melon wither in the end of July - August.
Measures of struggle against Vascular wilt:
- Returning cucurbitaceous agricultures on a former place not earlier than in six-seven years;
- Cleaning and burning of the rests of defeated plants;
- Deep under-winter ploughing;
- Treatment of seeds with solution 40%-s' formalin within 5min and two-hour soaking;
- Crops of seeds of a water-melon on easy sandy soils and melons - on easy loamy soils with deep occurrence of ground waters;
- Crops of seeds on high ridges on which root necks of plants are above a line drench of soils;
- Steady, short watering, without excessive humidifying of soil, loosening of an irrigation furrow after each watering;
- Spraying of plants during the period of budding - the beginnings of formation of fruits with 5%-s' extract from superphosphate or a solution of chloride potassium.

Karadrina (the noctuid small)

Caterpillars of Karadrina (dark-brown, length to 30mm) damage a tomato, a beet, a potato, pepper, peas, cabbage, an onions, garlic and many other agricultural plants. Caterpillars of Karadrina eat leaves, and on pepper, an eggplant and a tomato eat fruits. Wingspans of butterflies are 30 – 34mm. On grayish-brown forward wings is available kidney-shaped and a rusty round stain with a lightish border. Back wings are pinky-white. Quantity of generations from two to six (chrysalides and butterflies winter).
It is possible in struggle against Caterpillars of Karadrina to do bait crops of lucerne along the edges of a site, and then, to mow down it, to burn.

The Cut worm. How to protect plants?

       To vegetable cultures the big harm is caused by the Cut worm (noctuid): winter, exclamatory, wheaten, Icelandic, a black cutworm, etc. Caterpillars of these noctuids are grayish-earthy. They behave nocturnalism. They cut stalks, footstalks and gnaw out root crops.
       In struggle against the Cut worm it is necessary:
- First of all, to destroy weeds,
- It is good to dig over a site in the autumn.
       It is possible to catch butterflies of the Cut worm in special pans, which put on supports in height nearby 1m. In them pour water with treacle (3:1) and add a few yeast. Fermented treacle involves butterflies, they get in pans and sink in them (it is necessary to collect a Cut worm in the mornings). Caterpillars collect manually near plants (in the top layer of earth).

Noctuid-“gamma”. How not to admit occurrence Noctuid-“gamma” on a site?

       Noctuid-"gamma" it is extended almost in many areas. On dark-brown forward wings of the butterfly Noctuid-"gamma" (back yellowish with a dark border) the whitish stain with the shine, reminding the Greek letter "gamma" is visible. Caterpillars Noctuid-"gamma" greenish with eight light strips on a back and yellowish lateral, a head brown-green; length of their body nearby 30 mm.
       The butterfly Noctuid-"gamma" puts eggs on a potato, peas, a beet, salad, and also other cultural and weeds plants. Caterpillars Noctuid-"gamma" strongly damage leaves. At stirring of leaves young caterpillars Noctuid-"gamma" fall on the earth on gossamer, and adults fall, being rolled by a ringlet. Number of generations: two-three.
       For not to admit occurrence Noctuid-"gamma" on a site:
- It is necessary to destroy as soon as possible weeds on which leaves the butterfly can put eggs,
- If one site is infected, and another is not infected, not infected site dig round channels (25-30 sm) with steep walls where caterpillars creep.
- It is possible to shake caterpillars from plants and then to destroy. It is noticed that hens (poultry) willingly eat them.

Ignoramuses come to sorceress, with the request to jinx at someone, order love spells, to put the evil eye on somebody etc. Thus are not troubled to think of that, whence the sorceress takes bioenergetics for realization of so strong action.     
Customer, who has ordered a love spell, pays services of the sorceress by money or other material benefit. Customer pays only services for a bioenergetics redirection in a demanded channel. The customer has not compensated the bioenergetics with money. …Because, it is impossible to compensate the bioenergetics with (via) money. It is other substance. The adequate substance (bioenergetics - in this case) here is required. It is riches not estimated by money - we name it a Gift. Everyone has such a Gift from a birth, God-given. The Gift is: the Life, the Health, the Children and the Luck of the customer. The most powerful (expensive) among them is Life, further - Health, Children, and at last, the weakest is Luck. Exactly these riches compensate the bioenergetics, spent for realization of love spells, incantations and jinxes. Usually, first of all, is spent the Luck. But as it cannot defray the big bioenergetics expenses, other powerful riches are used too. And it is not obligatory one after another! How to be if the customer, for any reasons cannot compensate bioenergetics, spent for love spells, with own Gift? In this case he (she) borrows his children and/or grandchildren!!!
The most insulting is that the customer does not know about it!

PS: Similar occurs also in a case when you will wish the bad to anybody mentally or oral !!!


The most reliable way to get rid of cockroaches is exception of the possible latent places near pipes, other warm, dark and damp places in apartments. As is known, cockroaches do not like draughts, bright light, sharp differences of temperatures. It is necessary to take advantage of these facts at extermination of cockroaches:
· do not encase pipes!
· close up all gaps in ceilings and floor, where pipes pass to other storey.
· pull the lattices of extracts in bathrooms with a mosquito screen.
· hermetically seal the door of ventilating shaft if there is a door in utility core.
· investigate kitchen about presence of cracks where crumbs or other food rests can get. If there are such places, eliminate them.
· In a dustbin sprinkle a little salt (it is better a disinfectant).
· In time repair all leaks in pipes and in the sewerage system
· cleaned dishes put in a sideboard in a dry kind.


In “A&F” No 15 of 2011 I’ve read an article «Self-made light» about how Nikolay Budilin has constructed the self-made wind generator.
I’ve recollected how in 1966 year on a field camp roof there was «a wind generator». It was constructed by the tractor driver. The generator reminded the big weather vane. Behind the generator there was the long "tail" made of plywood. The tail showed, where the wind blows. Directly under the generator the tractor headlight hungs. The headlight well shone, when the good wind blows. In the rest of the time light from a headlight was weak. But this weak light was very useful in the field.
As the tractor driver spoke, the generator ("dynamo") is from a broken ancient tractor, the airscrew ("propeller") from an ancient plane. The airscrew has been set directly on a generator shaft.
I remember, this «the wind light» lit very long. I think that at small improvement, it would be possible to receive from it more FREE light.  

Mole cricket. How to struggle

(a large burrowing nocturnal cricket with broad forelegs, the female of which lays her eggs in an underground nest and guards the young. ● Family Gryllotalpidae, subfamily Gryllotalpinae: several genera)

       The adult insect (length to 50mm, brown colour, with forward feet in the form of a shovel with teeth) very much reminds a crayfish.
       Mole crickets are found more often on well humidified soils, near the rivers, ponds, in damp places. Mole cricket and its larvae dig passages in soil and damage roots, stalks of plants, tubers, root crops and seeds of cabbage, carrots, a cucumber, a beet, a tomato, an eggplant. Larvae of the insect are very similar to an adult insect, only have no wings.
       Larvae of Mole cricket and adult Mole cricket winter in soil or manure. Mole cricket blow eggs (Approximately on 400 pieces) in earthen caves.
       If to dig out in the autumn superficial (40sm) holes and to fill them with horse manure Mole cricket willingly gets into them on wintering. In the winter these holes dig out, and destroy insects. Careful late-autumn dig over a site promotes to exterminate of the insect.

Simple ways of struggle against wireworm

       Wireworms (larvae of elaters) damage root system of many plants - cabbage, carrots, a beet, a tomato, a cucumber, an onions, a potato, and also seeds and shoots.
       Elaters have the extended body if them to put on a back, they jump up, doing thus loud click (from here and the name of an insect). Larvae of elaters yellowy-brown, rigid, remind a wire, have three pairs short feet. Eggs white (0.5mm). Larvae develop three-four years.
       In struggle against wireworm good results give:
- Careful spring ploughing of soil,
- Liming,
- Catching of elaters, by put in the early spring on a site small heaps of a grass, straw.

Simple ways of struggle against slugs

       Naked slugs (snails) are dangerous pests of vegetable plants. In cool rainy weather on kitchen garden snails happens especially much. Slugs strongly damage cabbage, carrots, parsley, a beet, pepper, a cucumber, an eggplant, peas, a string bean, salad, other vegetables, a potato. They eat away oblong holes in leaves. In root crops, fruits and tubers of a potato slugs do deep cavities. Slugs conduct a nocturnalism. In the daytime Slugs usually hide under soil lumps, plants. At night slugs leave refuges and damage plants. The damaged root crops and tubers rot.
       To get rid of slugs:
- Between beds after rains scatter a strip slaked lime, wood ashes or superphosphate powder in the evening,
- After 30-40 minutes such processing should be repeated,
- It is possible to use also baits - to scatter between beds of a crust of a water-melon, a melon, a pumpkin. Slugs, catching a pleasant smell, quickly slip from plants and pass to new juicy and sweet forage, willingly eating it. Early in the morning collect them and destroy.
- It is necessary to avoid crops thickening,
- Carefully to weed weeds,
- In due time to delete from a site the postpicking rests, which also are in use as a refuge for slugs.

Illness a Tomato mosaic

       Illness a Tomato mosaic is caused by a virus. The Tomato mosaic proves out in the open and protected ground on leaves. Leaves become speckled, become shallow, and are deformed. At strong development of Tomato mosaic, fruits are not formed. The virus extends at top removal of seedlings, planting of sprouts to a constant place and carrying out of other agricultural technicians. Also carriers can be the insects parasitizing on plants of a tomato.
       Struggle measures:
- Use for crops only seeds from healthy plants,
- Removal of the affected sprouts and disinfection of soil by 1 % s' solution of potassium permanganate,
- Spraying of sprouts by 0.05%-s' solution of boric acid three-five days prior to its planting to a constant place and - repeatedly after 10 - 15 days;
- In hotbeds and under small-sized film shelters spraying of plants by 0.1%-s' solution of boric acid (1g on 1l of water);
- Destruction of the vegetative rests and weeds after picking of fruits,
       - Disinfection of hotbed frames and tares by 5%-s' solution of potassium permanganate.

Bean or beet bin plant louse

       Leaves of a beet, carrots, eggplant, potato and other plants are rolled owing to Bean or beet bin plant louses.
Bean or beet bin plant louse lives on the bottom part of leaves, on stalks where exhausts juice of plants. As a result leaves are braided is longitudinal, plants look sickly and give a low crop.
       Very warm and early spring promotes the strengthened development of a plant louse. The pest is destroyed by larvae of flies-sylphs, golden-eyed flies, and also various ichneumon-flies.
       In struggle against a plant louse apply:
- Tobacco infusion,
- Spraying by 2 %-s' solution of soap (200 g on 10 l of water).
       Plants chemicalizing it is necessary at the very beginning of occurrence of the pest when leaves are not rolled yet.

Big bud

       With Big bud are connected strong deformation blossom and lignified tomato fruits. This is virus disease. Leafhoppers - small sucking insects transfer the big bud.
       Reservation of virus are long-term weeds (basically, sheepbine - convolvulus arvensis ). Big bud more in the south is extended. The affected fruits are unsuitable to the use. First signs of Big bud - turn pink of young runaways. Soon the bottom leaves become violet too. They are as though combined along an average rib. It turns out so-called "boat". Calyx lobes grow together, and the blossom reminds a hand bell. Internal parts of a blossom take an ugly form. Affected blossom do not form fruits. Fruit-set before defeat of plants fruits have no taste. They have the wrong form.
       Basically Big bud has local character as frog-flies are not capable to fly on the big distance. The damp weather interfering development frog-flies, reduces affected plants.
       In struggle with Big bud good results give:
- Cultivation of early grades of plants,
- Early planting of sprouts,
- Thickening of a plants,
- Mulching soils with straw,
- Destruction of weeds,
- Careful autumn dig over a site.

Topmost rot on tomato. The occurrence reason

       This noninfectious disease is a consequence of a lack of one of food elements - calcium, and also microelements. To avoid some topmost decay it is possible by fit culture feeding of plants. The lack of moisture of soil during formation of fruits also conducts to infringement of a food of plants and defeat by topmost rot.

Fungi Fusarium and verticilliose on a tomato plant

       Plants wither from an overheat at a lack of a moisture of soil, from penetration through microscopic cracks on stalks and roots of soil fungi fusarium and verticilliose, tubules causing corking and a suspension of sap. Defeat of vascular system of stalks and roots a fungus comes also at sharp change of the droughty period by the damp.

Bacterial canker (cancer) of tomato - scab

       The bacterial canker of tomato mostly meets on the plants of a tomato which are grown up on easy sandy soils. The vascular system is affected (plants wither). Secondary defeat - speck on leaves and fruits, and also aphtha on footstalks and veins of leaves, stalks and fruit stems. The Bacterial canker of a tomato slowly develops. Sheet segments, and then and all sheet at first wither, on affected parts the dark strips passing in ruptures of a tissues are visible. At a cut of sick fruits taenia tubule look yellowish. Other type of defeat - « the bird's eye » - stains on fruits white with dark cracks in the centre, at the reddened fruits of a stain yellowish with the dark middle also are surrounded by a light aureole.
       The Bacterial cancer of a tomato extends through infected seeds and soil (from the vegetative rests), and also at topping of plants. Bacteria can be transferred by a wind, a rain and, getting on a plant, infect it, getting through mechanical damages.
       In struggle against the Bacterial canker of a tomato:
- Important in due time to destroy sick plants,
- To replace soil in hotbeds,
- Before topping of plants to delete affected bushes,
- To avoid mechanical damages of plants.

Mealy dew of pumpkin cultures

       The causative agent of Mealy dew develops on leaves and stalks of a cucumber, a vegetable marrow, a pumpkin, a bush pumpkin since growth of plants. Mealy dew does the greatest harm at the raised humidity of air and sharp differences of temperatures. At defeat of plants on leaves (at first on the top party, and then and on bottom), there are mealy white stains - an infecting agent mycelium. Leaves turn yellow and dry up. Fruits on affected plants late set, often remain underdeveloped.
       The infecting agent winters on the rests of sick plants, and also on other plants affected with mealy dew.
       Struggle measures: 
- Removal of tops of pumpkin and weed plants, 
- Deep dig over soils in the autumn, 
- Return of pumpkin cultures on a former place after three-five years only, 
- Maintenance of normal humidity of soil, 
- At occurrence of first signs of mealy dew spraying of plants by colloidal sulphur (20 g on 10 l of water in an open ground and 40 g on 10 l of water - in the protected ground).

Cucumber Mealy dew

       Occurrence of a white touch on leaves and stalks of a cucumber a sign at one of fungoid illnesses of a cucumber - mealy dew. It develops in July-August, affects also a water-melon, a melon. To warn development of mealy dew, it is necessary to plough the vegetative rests deeply. Early kinds of a cucumber suffer from illness less.
       In the south false mealy dew (peronosphoroz) is extended. Disease signs - on the top surface of leaves are visible brown -yellow stains, on bottom - a grayish-violet film. Merging, stains cover all surfaces of leaves, the leaves become fragile.

Cucumber anthracnose

       On cucumber leaves yellowish or brown stains are formed. On fruits, stalks and footstalks pinkish spots are formed - in the form of ulcers. Such ulcers often run into. The affected fruits become bitter. Cucumber anthracnose it is extended in many areas. Fungus causes Cucumber anthracnose. As higher humidity and air temperature - as stronger illness development. At storage of cucumbers, during their transportation illness development does not stop. The fungus winters on the vegetative rests, can extend with seeds as well.
       Protective actions:
- Deeply to close up the vegetative rests,
- At occurrence of illness of a plant to spray 1 % bordeaux, spray with flowers of sulphur, 
- To pick up fruits it is necessary in dry weather.

Cucurbitaceous plant louse

       Cucurbitaceous plant louse is cause of flowers and leaves of a cucumber and other pumpkin plants are wrinkled and braided. A Cucurbitaceous plant louse is polytrophic pest. The Cucurbitaceous plant louse may attend on plants of a cucumber, a water-melon, a vegetable marrow, an eggplant, pepper, a string bean and many other things. Larvae and nymphs winter basically on weeds. Cucurbitaceous plant louse settle from weeds on cultural plants. Cucurbitaceous plant louse during a season gives more than 10 generations. Females propagate by virginal reproduction.
       Ladybirds, larvae of flower flies reduce number of the pests.
In struggle against Cucurbitaceous plant louse value has: 
- Destruction of weeds,
- To use chemical preparations (it is necessary to do so that they got on the bottom party of leaves). 
- To apply tobacco infusion. 
In flowering of pumpkin plants, pest-killer chemicals it is impossible to use for not to poison bees.

False mealy dew.

       False mealy dew causes dirty taint, whitish stains on a surface of leaves of onions. False mealy dew is fungoid disease. False mealy dew extends by ergots (a taint on affected leaves) with rain drops, a wind. Having got on a plant, ergots sprout and take root into a tissue. Leaves prematurely are dried up. 
       Mealy dew develops in damp weather more strongly. Infection sources are the infected perennial onions, the vegetative rests.
       In struggle against false mealy dew it is important to improve a planting stock:
- The infection perishes at warming up of bulbs within 8 hours at temperature 40 ° (autumn),
- It is necessary periodically to look through crops and to destroy sick plants,
- Pericarps are sprayed with 1% bordeaux, adding paste to it, for the best fixation on plants.

Onions fly

            Onions leaves sometimes become yellowish -grey, wither and soon dry up. These damages cause larvae of onions fly (whitish, length of a body to 10 mm). The onions fly develops on an onion set and an onions-turnip. Often such plants simultaneously are damaged by "neck" rot and cauline nematode. The onions fly is extended almost everywhere. Chrysalis winter in pseudopupa in soil, the adult Onions flies eating nectar in the spring take off. Soon (in a midland in the end of May - the beginning of June) onions flies blow eggs (on some pieces) on soil near plants or between onions leaves. Approximately in a week there are white, legless larvae which get into a bulb through a bottom and eat away in it a cavity. Such bulbs rot. In the south One generation, in a midland - two, and - three in the north develops.
       It is noticed that early crops suffer from Onions fly, than late less. It is necessary to exterminate sick plants in due time also.

Carrot fly. An ugly kind of carrots. Ligneous carrots

       It is result of damage by carrot fly. Length of an adult carrot fly is 4 - 5 mm. A paunch of a carrot fly oval, is brilliant-black, a head brownish-red with a black triangular stain. Larvae of a carrot fly thin, light yellow, legless, length to 7 mm. Pupa of a carrot fly winters in follicle in soil, is more rare - larvae in root crops in storehouses. The emergence of carrot flies coincides with apple-tree flowering. Females of carrot flies lay eggs near fodder plants on soil. Larvae get into a root crop, making in it tunnels. Leaves at such plants become red-violet, soon turn yellow and dry up. In a midland develops two generations. It is noticed that the potato and semilong grades of carrots are damaged more strongly.
       Preventive measures against carrot fly:
- It is necessary to place carrots far away from those sites where it grew up last year, 
- Carefully to dig over soil (it complicates a emergence of carrot flies in the spring), 
- To sow seeds in early terms,
- It is necessary to thin out in due time plants as densified crops are damaged more strongly.

White rot of carrots. Signs. Crop protection.

       At affect of root crops by white rot the tissues are softened, on them there is a mycelium. If the affected root crops to plant in soil for the purpose of getting of seed, they usually perish. Infection sources are the soil and the vegetative rests on which the causative agent of white rot winters. Thus, the fungus affects root crops still in the field. In storehouse white rot also extends through soil and the vegetative rests.
       Except carrots, the fungus of white rot affects cabbage, a beet, parsley, celery, and a tomato.
       Preventive measures against white rot: 
- Good clearing, whitewashing and disinfection of places of storage of production, 
- Rejection damaged, rotted and wilted root crops, 
- Observance of a mode of storage, 
- Annual replacement of the sand used for alternation of root crops.

PLANT PESTS and DISEASES. A vascular bacteriosis

       The vascular bacteriosis affects white cabbage and a cauliflower, a garden radish. Leaves turn yellow, cores on them blacken. In storehouses on affected heads of cabbage black rot is formed. On pods and stalks testicle there is black stains, plants wither. From shutters of pods the infecting agent gets into seeds and infects them.
       Development of the vascular bacteriosis is promoted by warm rainy weather. At high humidity of air of a plant are affected more strongly and more often. The bacteria causing the vascular bacteriosis remained in soil, on the vegetative rests and in seeds.
       Cultural control: 
- Warming up of seeds in water in temperature 48 - 50 ° within 20 minutes with the subsequent immersing of seeds in cold water for two-three minutes; 
- Alternation of cultures (returning of cabbage to a former place not earlier than in four years); 
- Ravage of weeds;
- Dressing with potash fertilizers;
- Gathering and destruction of the vegetative rests; 
- Deep autumn dig over soils.


       Slimy bacteriosis is caused by bacteria, amazing, along with cabbage and turnips. Slimy bacteriosis shows itself first in sliming upper leaves, and then the entire head is in the decay and the inside of the stump. During the period of storage of cabbage heads with little damage to the stump disease development slows down. In the spring of a head is seed plants initially develop normally, and then they die. 
       The causative agent is stored in plant residues, the seed is not passed. In the growing disease-carrying pests are, in particular cabbage fly. Development of the disease contributes to a warm (20 - 25 °) and rainy weather. In cold and wet summer strongly decaying stump. 
       Control measures include:
crop rotation (should be planted after sugar beet cabbage, legumes, not the targeted vascular bacteriosis), 
destruction of the cabbage fly, 
the removal of the vegetation period of infected plants, 
collection and destruction of crop residues, 
storage cabbage at a temperature close to zero.