The clutch pedal began to be pressed difficultly and slowly to come backafter pressing (Volga GAZ-2410). 

Asa result of it, coupling joined with lateness, after release the pedal
Atcheck it has appeared that the hydro drive hose is partially corked. Thereason, most likely, is that the hose has bulked up from within because of abad mix of different brake liquids.
Also,have found out, which in the main cylinder instead of a brake liquid there was porridgein appearance reminding aluminum paint. Apertures of the piston of the maincylinder have been corked by firm sediments. In piston edges were fissures.Probably, splinters have somehow grinded to a condition of powder and/or haveentered into chemical reaction with a mix of different brake liquids. Conditions of all cuffs were satisfactory.


Various soil fungi are agent of disease ofplants under the name a blackleg. The stalk of seedling of cabbage inthe basis become thin, darkens, becomes fragile
            Blackleg is extendedeverywhere, develops on acid soils more strongly. An infection source is thesoil, heavy irrigations without good ventilation, and also strongly closeplanting promote blacklegdevelopment in hotbeds. In struggle against a blackleg it is necessary to give the basicattention to the methods promoting formation of powerful plants. It isnecessary to replace soil periodically in hotbeds. Ashes (entering 100g on m2),reduces development of blackleg,and also a bio-preparation Trihodermin. In many cases 1% bordeaux mixture (at ground watering)positive influence renders. Mulching of soil Constrains development of blackleg as well

CABBAGE PLANT PESTS. Cabbage moth larvae

Tahin fly, riders, and trichogramma egg parasites vs cabbage moth larvae

Cabbage moth larvae (caterpillar) nibble on the leaves of cabbage holes of irregular shape, pierce, and pollute the cabbage head.
            Cabbage moth larvae: young - light green, adults - greenish or brownish with a yellowish-brown lateral stripe. The length of their bodies is up to 50mm. This polyphagous pest is often found in beets, and even corn. Pupae overwinter in the soil. In early summer, butterflies fly (brownish-gray with dark transverse stripe on the front wings, wingspan up to 59mm). They lay eggs in groups (10 - 40 pieces) on the underside of leaves. Each female moth can lay more than two thousand eggs. Typically, cabbage moth gives one or two generations.
            Various parasites kill the pest - tahin fly, riders, Trichogramma-egg parasites.
            Need to plant out cabbage early, thoroughly to destroy the weeds; do not delay with autumn tillage. 

Cabbage butterflies

Pteromalus; rider apanteles; trichogramma vs cabbage plant pests

            Caterpillars of cabbage butterflies cause such damages: edges of cabbage leaves were eaten by pests heavily sometimes remained intact only thick veins.
            Cabbage butterflies are yellow-green with black spots and blotches, arranged in rows. The body length of up to 40mm, covered with bristles and hairs. Pupae overwinter on the walls of buildings, fences, shrubs and trees. In the spring big (55 - 60mm wingspan) butterflies fly out. The fronts of the wings are with black corners, and the female butterflies have two round black spots on the wings.
            Butterflies lay their eggs in small heaps (15-20 each) on the leaves of cabbage plants. After a week or two, yellowish with black head young caterpillars appear. First they cling together; feeding on the underside of leaves, and then crawl out. 
            Large role in reducing these cabbage plant pests play rider apanteles, which lay eggs in the body of caterpillars; trichogramma and pteromalus parasitizing in pupae.
            Good results in the fight against the cabbage butterflies give the drug ethno-bakterin-3. It is used in an amount of 10g per 10liters of water. At spraying is necessary to try to capture the underside of leaves.

Cabbage moth

PESTS of PLANTS. Cabbage moth.

            Caterpillar of cabbage moth gnaws in cabbage leaves the "windows" skinned over by a thin skin.
Caterpillar of cabbage moth is spindle-shaped with rare bristles, in the beginning yellowish, then light green, length 7 - 12mm, with 16 legs. Pupas (seldom butterflies) are wintered, on weeds or the vegetative leavings. Front wings of butterfly are narrow, brown with a white strip, hind - grey, with a long fringe. Each female moth lays up to 170 eggs on the bottom side and leaf stalk. Approximately in a week caterpillars are born.  Caterpillars do in pulp of leaves "mines" and live there two-three days.  Then they behave an open way of life, one-sidedly skeletonizate the leaves (windows). At the slightest touch to caterpillars, they wriggle, curl and go down from leaves on silky spider web.
            In the south the moth cabbage gives five-eight generations.
            Against caterpillars the preparation entobakterin-3 is effective, for example.
It is necessary to clean carefully after harvest the vegetative leavings where pupas can winter and also to weed out promptly.

Cabbage flies

PESTS OF PLANTS. Larvae of spring cabbage fly

            White legless larvae of spring cabbage fly damage roots and lower stems of seedlings of cabbage.
            Lengths are up to 8mm; at the end of the body have 16 knolls. Puparia overwinter in the soil. The flies emerge during planting seedlings (in greenhouses before the open field). On the fourth and sixth day after flowering wild cherry, they start to lay eggs (white with a groove, cigar-shaped, about 1 mm long) on the lower part of stem, root collar, and often on the soil around the plants. Each female lays up to 100 eggs (several pieces per plant). About a week later the larvae emerge, which penetrate into the roots (not just cabbage and turnip). Heavily damaged plants when moisture deficiency die. After 20 - 30 days larvae turn into pupae, of which 15 - 20 days fly out flies. In the south during the year develop three generations.
            Dangerous pest of cabbage plants is a year-old fly that lives in one generation (the mature insects emerge after the harvest of early cabbage). The larvae damage roots and her stump sprouts. To combat it is recommended to plant the plants are not too deep, timely and feed their spud. Stumps must be removed immediately after harvest.

PLANT PESTS. Flea beetles

            Flea beetles (small jumping bugs) do on leaves of cruciferous plant, small deepenings in an ulcer kind.
            Most often from them meet: wavy, brightly-leg, sinuate, black, dark blue and a south crucifer flea beetle. Adult flea beetles winter under the fallen down leaves, under the vegetative rests, on a soil surface. Flea beetles in the early spring leave places of wintering. Flea beetles at first eat weeds. Further flea beetles attack shoots of cultural plants and sprouts. Sometimes flea beetles almost completely destroy shoots. Pericarps of cruciferous plant are damaged as well.
· Sinuate flea beetles oviposit in holes, which it gnaws out on roots;
· brightly-leg flea beetle - on leaves;
· other kinds of flea beetles - in soil.
            Injuriousness of flea beetles especially increases at hot and dry weather in the spring.      Larvae of flea beetles develop on roots, eating small roots.  Larvae of flea beetle can eat round root crops at a neck. Larvae of brightly-leg flea beetles "mine" leaves.
            Pupation of flea beetles occurs in soil. In the end of summer there is a new generation of flea beetles.
            For protection the cabbage sprouts from damage by flea beetles, it should bed as early as possible. The techniques directed on acceleration of growth of plants (fertilizer application, dosing, watering, and dusting with a road dust with ashes), reduce injuriousness of flea beetles.

Cabbage plant louse

            Why cabbage leaves roll, become colorless, and a head of cabbage not braided?
It is result of activity of a cabbage plant louse. It damages not only cabbage, but also:
·         turnip,
·         radish,
·         garden radish,
·         horse-radish.
Eggs of a plant louse (is brilliant-black, length to 0.5mm) pass winter on biennial cruciferous weeds and stumps. In the early spring larvae leave eggs, turning to wingless females, which without fertilization gives birth larvae. Soon there are also the winged females flying on other plants. Each female is capable give birth more than 40 larvae. For a summer happens more than 15 generations of the vermin (everyone develops in 10 - 14 days). Sometimes the damaged leaves turn pink; seeds are not formed.
The sexual generation (females and males) appears in September-October. After fertilization the female postpones two-four eggs.
Reduce number of the wrecker:
·         ladybirds,
·         larvae of flower flies
·         golden-eyed flies,
·         ichneumon-fly
and other insects and predators. In struggle against a plant louse as precautionary action it is necessary to destroy weeds.

How to bring down high blood pressure? Recipe of “UNOBI SUVI” (UNABI BROTH)

          1kg of unabi (Zizyphus jujuba), 2liters of water
        Wash out dried unabi in cold water. Cut large ones on three-four parts, the others leave as a whole. Put in the enameled ware. Fill in with strong boiled water, densely close with a cover. Wrap up with bath towel and leave at 10-20 hours (it is possible in a thermos as well).
Next morning filter through a double cheesecloth.
        Serve up the broth, and fill fruits again with 0.5litres of boiled water and leave in the closed ware till next day. Then serve up fruits separately.
        Treating high blood pressure. Such broth in folk medicine is used as very useful drink at a high blood pressure. Norm is 1 cup in one time.
        At an anemia it is counter-indicative!


1l of pomegranate juice, 200g of sugar, 1 glass of boiled water, vanilla on a knife tip.
        Pour the wrung out fresh pomegranate juice in corrosion-proof ware. Dissolve sugar in a glass of warm water and add to the juice. Put on fire, as soon as will begin to boil, remove from fire. Enter vanillin, densely close with a cover and cool to room temperature.
        Before serve up it is possible to cool in the refrigerator.
They advise to drink it after fat and meat dishes and as a medicine for diarrhea. And sometimes as the freshening soft drink tempting appetite.
Wrap up with bath towel and leave at 10-20 hours (it is possible in a thermos as well).

             1kg of dried apricots, 2liters of water
        Take sun dried apricots (for ex. «qantak» or «isfarak»). Wash out dried apricots with cold water, put in the enameled pan. Fill in with strong boiled water, close with cover. Wrap up with bath towel and leave at 10-20 hours (it is possible in a thermos as well).
        After that, filter out the broth through double cheesecloth, cool it. The turgid apricots serve up separately.
        In folk medicine such broth is recommended at constipations ant to hypertensive persons. The dried apricots also are recommended at heart disease as a potassium source.

            CREAM WITH HONEY

          500g of melted butter (or butter), 300g of honey
        Melt separately honey and butter. Connect both products and properly mix for formation of a homogeneous mix.
        Serve up for a breakfast.
        In folk medicine such delicacy is used for patients, who have organism exhaustion (at a strong weight loss, an indisposition).

            Another variant is called «BOL QAYMOQ» - cream with honey.
2 glasses of dense cream and 0.5 glasses of honey
Put the cream on fire, gradually stirring, allow beginning boil. When on a surface oil will emerge, remove from fire, pour in boiling honey and shake up before formation of a homogeneous mix.


1kg of different kinds of fruits and berries, 200g of honey and 3l of waters, 0.5 tsp of a saffron or vanillin on a knife tip.
        Wash out the fresh fruits (apricots, apples, peaches and grapes), taken in equal quantity, put in the enameled saucepan. Fill in with water and put on fire. When it will begin to boil, add honey and continue boiling on slow fire to readiness. At the end of boiling add a saffron (or vanillin), densely close with cover. At serve cool in the refrigerator or a put slices of food ice. 
        Gulob is used as a cooling and freshening drink in hot days of summer. In the winter it is possible to prepare gulob from a mix of dried fruits and raisins.

On 1kg of tomatoes – 1kg of sugar, 2.5 glasses of water, 0.5 tsp of vanillin. Small, the identical size red tomatoes are used for jam. (It is desirable tomatoes types «plum tomatoes», «gumbert», "rybka", or tomatoes not turning red).
        Cull tomatoes, delete damaged and crushed tomatoes. Wash out in running water; lay in a basin for jam.
Boil syrup from water and sugar. Fill in with this syrup the prepared tomatoes and leave for 1 day. In the next day separate syrup. Boil the syrup and again fill in tomatoes. In the third day repeat the operation again. In the fourth day put tomatoes with syrup on average fire. Get finish at readiness, removing the formed foam, add vanillin.


1kg of carrot, 1kg of sugar, 1litre of water, 0.5tsp of vanillin
Clear yellow carrot and chop straws (small cubes, circles, asterisks);
Put in a basin for jam, fill in with water, and deliver on fire;
Boil, removing foam;
When carrot becomes soft, strew sugar;
Continue to cook on slow fire until carrot does not become transparent;
Add vanillin in the end of cooking for aroma.


500g of cleared kernels of a walnut, 500g of raisins, 50g of breading, 15-20 drops of any fruit essence, 1tbsp of powdered sugar.
                Slightly roast the cleared kernels of walnut;
Place on a baking tray and put the tray in an oven;
As soon as the oily smell will start to emit, remove and quickly cool on a wind (air);
Clear raisins of rubbish, delete fruit stems;
Wash out with cold water and pass through a meat grinder together with walnut kernels;
Add a breading, fruit essence in the mix;
Properly mix and make balls in size about a walnut, serve on a fruit vase, strew powdered sugar.
        In folk medicine it is recommended as a mean for an anemia.


1kg of quince, 300g of walnut kernels, 200g of sugar.
-   Clear the down of ripe quince fruits,
-   Take out core together with seeds,
-   Dip into cold water,
-   Rinse out walnut kernels in cold water,
-   Pass it through a meat grinder,
-   Mix having added sugar,
-   Fill with this stuffing the prepared fruits of a quince,
-   Place on storeys of a steam pan and boil it within 30-35 minutes on steam.
        “Behi do’lma” is served up with tea.
        In folk medicine it is recommended as a mean from cold diseases.

The structural, high-fertile soil is necessary for cultivation of sprouts and vegetables in hotbeds. 0.25-0.3m2 of such mix is required for one hotbed. The soil is mixed from:

Sod soil,
Humus soil,
Leaf soil,
Good garden soil,
Grey or white coarse-grained sand;
The best is the sod soil. For preparation of sod soil, the sod cover is cut off in the thickness 10-12sm.  Layers of sod are put in stack in layer-by-layer: a grass to a grass. Through each two layers of sod it is recommended to stack manure layer 10-15sm. It is necessary to water dry sod or, that is better, to pour with a dung-water solution. At preparation of sod in the early spring the sod soil will be ready in a year. Within summer the stack two-three times is excavated.
The humus soil is got at decomposition of organic substance in hotbeds or in compost heaps. At compost preparation the vegetative trash, manure, other organic materials are put in a stack where they rot through. The soil rich with nutrients is as a result formed. The humus soil can be getting in one-two year at two-three times shoveling of a stack within summer.
For preparation of the leaf soil the leaves collected in the autumn are stacked in heaps in a shady place. Within summer the heap some times are watered and shoveled. Leaves are rotted through in two years, forming the easy soil. It is good admixture to the dense sod soil.

     Biofuel gives heat as a result of vital functions of the bacteria, which decomposes organic substance. Good biofuel should be friable, contain enough of nitrogenous substances and 65-70 % of moisture. In such nutrient medium of a bacterium quickly breed, and in biofuel the heat is settled.
The best biofuel is horse manure. It contains a considerable quantity of nitrogen, has normal humidity, and is quickly warmed up - in 7-10 days after stuffing of hotbeds the temperature reaches 70°C.
The cow manure contains superfluous quantity of moisture, is warmed up more slowly. After a warming up of manure the temperature, as a rule, does not exceed 40°C. Thermal properties of the cow manure improve by addition of dry leaves and sawdust.
The sheep and goat manure contains many nitrogenous substances, but it demands of humidifying. For the best burning the cow and sheep manure mix with horse manure (60 % of horse manure and 40 % of cow or 30 % of horse, 40 % of cow and 30 % of sheep manure).
The organic waste also is considered one of the best kinds of biofuel with normal density and humidity, the temperature in it exceeds 65 ° and long it keeps. If the waste very humid, dry materials are added. Dry waste is humidified or mixed with the cow manure.
Heat of the sun (or heat of vaporization) is used along with biological fuel for heating hotbeds.

What can protect plants from cold except film?

For protecting plants from cold may be used different covers - mats, paper caps, etc.
Good plant protection caps are made of translucent waterproof paper. Paper caps are doing as:
paper is cut into squares with sides equal to 50cm, angles are cut little, then fold the paper so as to form eight segments extending from the center of the square. Then two any segments are folded together and added to the third. For the strength of folded paper can fasten with pin. But cap keeps its shape pretty good without this).
In order caps not to carry away by the wind, their edges are covered with soil.   
Cucumber, tomato, eggplant, pepper plants are covered with paper caps after planting in open ground. If weather is warm, should not to do it.

To protect plants also can be used pottery or other pots without a bottom. The diameter of the pot 16-17cm. Square-shaped pieces of glass, cut from broken glass are used to secure the top of pottery.
To protect plants at night, you can use put together from boards gutter.  The using the boxes and other devices are recommended also for protecting plants.


        For dough: 500g flour, 1 egg, 1 tsp salt, 0.5 glasses of water.

For forcemeat: 500g meat (pulp), 400g onions, on 1 tsp of salt and black ground pepper, 1kg oils for deep-fat fryer.

        Pour egg in a pot, add water and salt. Good mix, that there were no lumps. Pouring parts a flour, knead dough. Roll in a sphere, cover with a napkin and set aside for 10-15 minutes. Then by means of long thin rolling pin unroll sheet with the thickness in 2mm. Cut small squares in the size 4 X 4 cm.

Forcemeat preparation: pass meat through a meat grinder. Chop onions to thin rings, connect to meat, add salt and pepper. Put on fire the pot with a spherical bottom, warm up approximately to 100oC. Fry dumplings forcemeat constantly stirring slowly with skimmer, before juice discharge. Close a cover and to cool forcemeat in the same pot to room temperature.

On each piece of dough put 1 tsp forcemeat. Form pelmeni, fry in a hot deep-fat fryer.

        At serving fried dumplings put on a fruit vase, strew with powdered sugar.


See also

Protected field (soil management). Cool season vegetables

Synthetic film allows accelerating plants fruiting and significantly increasing the yields of early vegetables. at first, film can cover:
-     sorrel,
-     rhubarb,
-     fennel,
-     parsley,
-     celery,
-     coriander;
then it can be transferred to cover plants of:
-     radish,
-     lettuce,
-     green onion,
-     plants of cucumber and tomato seedlings that were grown in the home.
Cucumber plants under film shelters begin to fruiting for 10-15 days earlier and with good care can give twice or three times more crops.
For vegetables most commonly polyethylene film is used. It best meets the requirements of plants and is not too expensive.
Polyethylene film from high temperature expands, and from low temperature shrinks, that must be considered at pulling it on the frames.
Frames can be made in the form of arcs from rods or wire. The arcs are stuck in the ground a meter from one another. In order the film does not sag and does not touch the plants, the arcs are connected with strings.
After film removing, care of plants is usual.


For seeds should be left on cucumber plant not more than two or three cucumbers which:
-     the early  fruit inception;
-     has а regular form;
-     has a proper size;
-     has other signs, characteristic for the given cucumber breed.
The remaining cucumbers, flowers and ovaries are removed.
Selected seed-bearing plants are marked, and the cucumbers are left on bines until the autumn frosts. Within summer it is necessary:
-     to weed out the weeds;
-     to loosen soil;
-     to pin bines to the ground;
-     to water the plants;
-     to fertilize right after selecting the seed-bearing plants through two or three weeks (3 tbsp of superphosphate and 6 tbsp of oven ashes in a bucket of water).
Before the onset of frost:
-     seed-bearing cucumbers should be relocated in a warm and well ventilated room;
-     when the cucumbers will be dark yellow, will become soft, contents are took in a bowl with water and left few days to fermentation, changing the water every other day;
-     once the mass is strongly begun to foam, cucumber seeds are laid on a sieve;
-     the seeds are thoroughly washed with running water;
-     the seeds are laid on the canvas and put under the sun. During drying, cucumber seeds should be mixed constantly;
-     finally cucumber seeds are dried at the stove.
-     the seeds are stored in a dry place.
From 10kg of cucumbers can be obtained 120-150g  seeds.

See also


During growth and development of tomato plant is labeled with colored ribbon or sticks those plants, which fruiting abundantly, giving the tomatoes of high commercial-quality, characterized by resistance to diseases, ripening, and heat resistance. From them is taking away the largest and most ripened tomatoes from the second and subsequent picking. The tomatoes of the first picking are often ugly, with the week seeds. The most productive and precocious progeny produce seeds obtained from the tomato of the second and third pickings. 
          Quite ripe tomatoes are cut across and tomato seeds are selected. Selected tomato seeds with pulp and juice are left to ferment for two to three days. This fermentation is one of the preventive measures against diseases transmitted from seed. Then the juice is drained together with the pulp. Seeds fallen on the bottom are washed with water and thoroughly dried in the air, scattering them in a thin layer of plywood sheets or burlap stretched over a frame. One kg of fruit yields 3-4g of tomato seeds. 


A tuber of potato and two-three seeds of peas are put in one pit (furrow) at joint cultivating of potato and peas. The greatest crop is got on plots with friable fertile soil (mineral and organic fertilizers well introduced). Even in the absence of fertilizers such combination of cultures will not cause a strong exhaustion of soil on a plot. Peas itself enrich soil with nitrogen, thanking to root nodule bacterium which settle on its roots and acquire nitrogen from air. It is necessary to "infect" seeds of peas or a plot with the root nodule bacterium. For this purpose handful of the soil, taken from a field where peas grew, is put in every pit, or seeds are processed with the Nitragin preparation. One bottle of this preparation is enough to process seeds for 1hectare.

See also


Untimely having watered or its absence leads to a suspension of growth of potato tubers. After watering or rains growth of potato tubers renews. Such non - uniform growth also causes ugliness of potato tubers. To avoid it, actions are carried out:

- The plot is processed deeply,
- Organic fertilizers are introduced,
- The soil structure is improved,
- Plants in due time is watered for the purpose of moisture keeping.

See also