Big bud

       With Big bud are connected strong deformation blossom and lignified tomato fruits. This is virus disease. Leafhoppers - small sucking insects transfer the big bud.
       Reservation of virus are long-term weeds (basically, sheepbine - convolvulus arvensis ). Big bud more in the south is extended. The affected fruits are unsuitable to the use. First signs of Big bud - turn pink of young runaways. Soon the bottom leaves become violet too. They are as though combined along an average rib. It turns out so-called "boat". Calyx lobes grow together, and the blossom reminds a hand bell. Internal parts of a blossom take an ugly form. Affected blossom do not form fruits. Fruit-set before defeat of plants fruits have no taste. They have the wrong form.
       Basically Big bud has local character as frog-flies are not capable to fly on the big distance. The damp weather interfering development frog-flies, reduces affected plants.
       In struggle with Big bud good results give:
- Cultivation of early grades of plants,
- Early planting of sprouts,
- Thickening of a plants,
- Mulching soils with straw,
- Destruction of weeds,
- Careful autumn dig over a site.

Topmost rot on tomato. The occurrence reason

       This noninfectious disease is a consequence of a lack of one of food elements - calcium, and also microelements. To avoid some topmost decay it is possible by fit culture feeding of plants. The lack of moisture of soil during formation of fruits also conducts to infringement of a food of plants and defeat by topmost rot.

Fungi Fusarium and verticilliose on a tomato plant

       Plants wither from an overheat at a lack of a moisture of soil, from penetration through microscopic cracks on stalks and roots of soil fungi fusarium and verticilliose, tubules causing corking and a suspension of sap. Defeat of vascular system of stalks and roots a fungus comes also at sharp change of the droughty period by the damp.

Bacterial canker (cancer) of tomato - scab

       The bacterial canker of tomato mostly meets on the plants of a tomato which are grown up on easy sandy soils. The vascular system is affected (plants wither). Secondary defeat - speck on leaves and fruits, and also aphtha on footstalks and veins of leaves, stalks and fruit stems. The Bacterial canker of a tomato slowly develops. Sheet segments, and then and all sheet at first wither, on affected parts the dark strips passing in ruptures of a tissues are visible. At a cut of sick fruits taenia tubule look yellowish. Other type of defeat - « the bird's eye » - stains on fruits white with dark cracks in the centre, at the reddened fruits of a stain yellowish with the dark middle also are surrounded by a light aureole.
       The Bacterial cancer of a tomato extends through infected seeds and soil (from the vegetative rests), and also at topping of plants. Bacteria can be transferred by a wind, a rain and, getting on a plant, infect it, getting through mechanical damages.
       In struggle against the Bacterial canker of a tomato:
- Important in due time to destroy sick plants,
- To replace soil in hotbeds,
- Before topping of plants to delete affected bushes,
- To avoid mechanical damages of plants.

Mealy dew of pumpkin cultures

       The causative agent of Mealy dew develops on leaves and stalks of a cucumber, a vegetable marrow, a pumpkin, a bush pumpkin since growth of plants. Mealy dew does the greatest harm at the raised humidity of air and sharp differences of temperatures. At defeat of plants on leaves (at first on the top party, and then and on bottom), there are mealy white stains - an infecting agent mycelium. Leaves turn yellow and dry up. Fruits on affected plants late set, often remain underdeveloped.
       The infecting agent winters on the rests of sick plants, and also on other plants affected with mealy dew.
       Struggle measures: 
- Removal of tops of pumpkin and weed plants, 
- Deep dig over soils in the autumn, 
- Return of pumpkin cultures on a former place after three-five years only, 
- Maintenance of normal humidity of soil, 
- At occurrence of first signs of mealy dew spraying of plants by colloidal sulphur (20 g on 10 l of water in an open ground and 40 g on 10 l of water - in the protected ground).

Cucumber Mealy dew

       Occurrence of a white touch on leaves and stalks of a cucumber a sign at one of fungoid illnesses of a cucumber - mealy dew. It develops in July-August, affects also a water-melon, a melon. To warn development of mealy dew, it is necessary to plough the vegetative rests deeply. Early kinds of a cucumber suffer from illness less.
       In the south false mealy dew (peronosphoroz) is extended. Disease signs - on the top surface of leaves are visible brown -yellow stains, on bottom - a grayish-violet film. Merging, stains cover all surfaces of leaves, the leaves become fragile.

Cucumber anthracnose

       On cucumber leaves yellowish or brown stains are formed. On fruits, stalks and footstalks pinkish spots are formed - in the form of ulcers. Such ulcers often run into. The affected fruits become bitter. Cucumber anthracnose it is extended in many areas. Fungus causes Cucumber anthracnose. As higher humidity and air temperature - as stronger illness development. At storage of cucumbers, during their transportation illness development does not stop. The fungus winters on the vegetative rests, can extend with seeds as well.
       Protective actions:
- Deeply to close up the vegetative rests,
- At occurrence of illness of a plant to spray 1 % bordeaux, spray with flowers of sulphur, 
- To pick up fruits it is necessary in dry weather.

Cucurbitaceous plant louse

       Cucurbitaceous plant louse is cause of flowers and leaves of a cucumber and other pumpkin plants are wrinkled and braided. A Cucurbitaceous plant louse is polytrophic pest. The Cucurbitaceous plant louse may attend on plants of a cucumber, a water-melon, a vegetable marrow, an eggplant, pepper, a string bean and many other things. Larvae and nymphs winter basically on weeds. Cucurbitaceous plant louse settle from weeds on cultural plants. Cucurbitaceous plant louse during a season gives more than 10 generations. Females propagate by virginal reproduction.
       Ladybirds, larvae of flower flies reduce number of the pests.
In struggle against Cucurbitaceous plant louse value has: 
- Destruction of weeds,
- To use chemical preparations (it is necessary to do so that they got on the bottom party of leaves). 
- To apply tobacco infusion. 
In flowering of pumpkin plants, pest-killer chemicals it is impossible to use for not to poison bees.

False mealy dew.

       False mealy dew causes dirty taint, whitish stains on a surface of leaves of onions. False mealy dew is fungoid disease. False mealy dew extends by ergots (a taint on affected leaves) with rain drops, a wind. Having got on a plant, ergots sprout and take root into a tissue. Leaves prematurely are dried up. 
       Mealy dew develops in damp weather more strongly. Infection sources are the infected perennial onions, the vegetative rests.
       In struggle against false mealy dew it is important to improve a planting stock:
- The infection perishes at warming up of bulbs within 8 hours at temperature 40 ° (autumn),
- It is necessary periodically to look through crops and to destroy sick plants,
- Pericarps are sprayed with 1% bordeaux, adding paste to it, for the best fixation on plants.

Onions fly

            Onions leaves sometimes become yellowish -grey, wither and soon dry up. These damages cause larvae of onions fly (whitish, length of a body to 10 mm). The onions fly develops on an onion set and an onions-turnip. Often such plants simultaneously are damaged by "neck" rot and cauline nematode. The onions fly is extended almost everywhere. Chrysalis winter in pseudopupa in soil, the adult Onions flies eating nectar in the spring take off. Soon (in a midland in the end of May - the beginning of June) onions flies blow eggs (on some pieces) on soil near plants or between onions leaves. Approximately in a week there are white, legless larvae which get into a bulb through a bottom and eat away in it a cavity. Such bulbs rot. In the south One generation, in a midland - two, and - three in the north develops.
       It is noticed that early crops suffer from Onions fly, than late less. It is necessary to exterminate sick plants in due time also.

Carrot fly. An ugly kind of carrots. Ligneous carrots

       It is result of damage by carrot fly. Length of an adult carrot fly is 4 - 5 mm. A paunch of a carrot fly oval, is brilliant-black, a head brownish-red with a black triangular stain. Larvae of a carrot fly thin, light yellow, legless, length to 7 mm. Pupa of a carrot fly winters in follicle in soil, is more rare - larvae in root crops in storehouses. The emergence of carrot flies coincides with apple-tree flowering. Females of carrot flies lay eggs near fodder plants on soil. Larvae get into a root crop, making in it tunnels. Leaves at such plants become red-violet, soon turn yellow and dry up. In a midland develops two generations. It is noticed that the potato and semilong grades of carrots are damaged more strongly.
       Preventive measures against carrot fly:
- It is necessary to place carrots far away from those sites where it grew up last year, 
- Carefully to dig over soil (it complicates a emergence of carrot flies in the spring), 
- To sow seeds in early terms,
- It is necessary to thin out in due time plants as densified crops are damaged more strongly.

White rot of carrots. Signs. Crop protection.

       At affect of root crops by white rot the tissues are softened, on them there is a mycelium. If the affected root crops to plant in soil for the purpose of getting of seed, they usually perish. Infection sources are the soil and the vegetative rests on which the causative agent of white rot winters. Thus, the fungus affects root crops still in the field. In storehouse white rot also extends through soil and the vegetative rests.
       Except carrots, the fungus of white rot affects cabbage, a beet, parsley, celery, and a tomato.
       Preventive measures against white rot: 
- Good clearing, whitewashing and disinfection of places of storage of production, 
- Rejection damaged, rotted and wilted root crops, 
- Observance of a mode of storage, 
- Annual replacement of the sand used for alternation of root crops.

PLANT PESTS and DISEASES. A vascular bacteriosis

       The vascular bacteriosis affects white cabbage and a cauliflower, a garden radish. Leaves turn yellow, cores on them blacken. In storehouses on affected heads of cabbage black rot is formed. On pods and stalks testicle there is black stains, plants wither. From shutters of pods the infecting agent gets into seeds and infects them.
       Development of the vascular bacteriosis is promoted by warm rainy weather. At high humidity of air of a plant are affected more strongly and more often. The bacteria causing the vascular bacteriosis remained in soil, on the vegetative rests and in seeds.
       Cultural control: 
- Warming up of seeds in water in temperature 48 - 50 ° within 20 minutes with the subsequent immersing of seeds in cold water for two-three minutes; 
- Alternation of cultures (returning of cabbage to a former place not earlier than in four years); 
- Ravage of weeds;
- Dressing with potash fertilizers;
- Gathering and destruction of the vegetative rests; 
- Deep autumn dig over soils.


       Slimy bacteriosis is caused by bacteria, amazing, along with cabbage and turnips. Slimy bacteriosis shows itself first in sliming upper leaves, and then the entire head is in the decay and the inside of the stump. During the period of storage of cabbage heads with little damage to the stump disease development slows down. In the spring of a head is seed plants initially develop normally, and then they die. 
       The causative agent is stored in plant residues, the seed is not passed. In the growing disease-carrying pests are, in particular cabbage fly. Development of the disease contributes to a warm (20 - 25 °) and rainy weather. In cold and wet summer strongly decaying stump. 
       Control measures include:
crop rotation (should be planted after sugar beet cabbage, legumes, not the targeted vascular bacteriosis), 
destruction of the cabbage fly, 
the removal of the vegetation period of infected plants, 
collection and destruction of crop residues, 
storage cabbage at a temperature close to zero.