Inorganic fertilizers are stored in good covered dry rooms with a timber floor. It is impossible to put fertilizer on an earthen floor in order to avoid humidifying.

Absence of moisture in a room is the basic condition of successful storage. If air in it damp, fertilizers necessarily cover with something (straw floor-mats, a canvas). At wrong storage nitric and potassium fertilizers become compressed, superphosphate badly diffuses, their nutritional value is lost.

Manure is better to store in stacks. Stack it densely. On an impenetrable for liquid manure ground (for example, clay) at first 25-30cm a straw layer is put, then manure. A stack from every side is covered with the earth. Manure well rots in 8-10 months. To avoid nitrogen losses, to manure it is necessary to add superphosphate or a phosphorite powder (2.5-3kg on 100kg).

Poultry dung in order to avoid nitrogen losses should be stored in heaps in a mix with the dry ground, protecting from water which washes away nutrients. Nitrogen losses can be lowered, having added on 10kg a dung 1.5-2kg superphosphate and humus (10% of mass of dung). Sawdust and shavings for covering the dung does not suit; they strongly reduce its nutrient property.


Products : 1 carcass of a goose (weight 3,5-4kg), Shpik (the salted pork fat)– 250g, a set of aromatic roots, 2 onions, 300-400g veal, 100-150g mushrooms,  8-10 peas of black peppers, salt, a flour, 1 glass of wine, 1 wine-glass of brandy


Clean and wash out carcass of a goose well. Chop off legs and wings.  Salt them from outside and inside. Hold within 24 hours at temperature nearby 10оС. In a paunch of a goose put the mushroom slices and sew up with a thread. In the big saucepan (such that the goose in it was located with block) put consistently:

- The straws of salted pork fat,

- Rings of onions,

- Veal (scraps) and chopped aromatic roots.

Above them place a goose, goose legs and wings. Close the saucepan densely with cover. Put on moderate fire. When the salted pork fat will start to fry, pour in (with a spoon) about 1litre of warm water. Then add pepper and wine. After an hour turn the goose and continue stew another an hour. Thus, pour out a part of fat and add a little warm water. Take out the goose, release from a thread. Cut to the portions. Rub the juice, fill with a little flour, add brandy and put on weak fire for 10 minutes. Garnish every portion of goose meat (and stuffing) with boiled cauliflower filled with oil (or fried sauerkraut) and pickled cucumbers.

Serve up the sauce separately in a sauce-boat.


It is translated from book «Art of cooking», Author Sophia V. Smolnitska. 1987.



At entering of fresh sawdust into soil development a plant is weakened and productivity decreases. Sawdust is recommended to be used for mulching of soil and in compost with organic fertilizers. Sawdust is used actually as cold protector.


Duck is a waterfowl of the middle and small sizes. Neck of duck is rather short. The tarso-metatarsus covered in front by cross-section clypeus.

The domestic duck (canard) weighs up to 4kg. Egg production is up to 250 eggs.

The duck has diversity:

            - Harlequin duck,

- Steamer duck,

- River duck,

- Wood duck,

            - Grey,

            - Ukrainian,

- Pochard,

- Musky,

- Mallard

- African sheld,

- Indian runner,

- White-headed,

- Merganser and etc.

Many ducks are objects of hunting (game birds).


At shallow placement of fertilizers, they are accessible to plants only at the very beginning of their growth when the requirement for fertilizers is very small; but their surplus at this time can detain of growth of plants.

Therefore is better:

- 4/5 doses of fertilizers to close up under redigging, 

- fifth part to put in hollows or in rows at crop of seeds or at seedling planting.

When put inorganic fertilizers in hollows, necessary to mix them with the soil.

It is impossible to suppose contacts of seeds or roots of plants directly with fertilizers.


At joint entering of inorganic and organic fertilizers the best conditions are created for a feed of plants. In particular, conditions are created for activity of microorganisms which convert nutrients of organic fertilizers in the forms accessible to plants.

In the beginning plants consume nutrients of inorganic fertilizers, and then, because of microorganisms, plants consume nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from organic fertilizers.

At joint entering inorganic and organic fertilizers it is possible to reduce their expense on area unit.


On every 100m2 area occupied with a potato and vegetable cultures, it is necessary to bring:

- Sulphate-ammonium 1.5-2kg,

- Superphosphate - 5-7kg,

- Potash salt – 1.5kg,

- Ashes of grassy plants - 20-30kg,

- Dung 200-400kg.

Thus organic fertilizers under culture of a cucumber are better for bringing in the spring, under other vegetable cultures - in the autumn. It is necessary to avoid surplus both mineral, and organic fertilizers. At a salinization of soil the plants suffer the same as and at a lack of fertilizers. 


On the average it is possible to say that manure at a straw litter contains about 0.5% of nitrogen, more than 0.5% of potassium and about 0.25% of phosphorus.

Poultry dung - strong fertilizer. There are much more nutrients in it, than in manure. The dung of chicken contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium. The duck and goose dung is poorer than chicken dung. To avoid nitrogen losses at dung storage, it should be mixed with the dry earth or with rotted manure.

Dried up and finely grounded dung is introduced in the spring at redigging of a plot from calculation 8-10kg on 100m2 and carefully is mixed with soil. At use dung for dressing of plants at first is filled in with water (1:1), and then bucket of this solution is added to six-ten buckets of water. The dung can be added in compost.

Cattle urine - good nitrogen-potash fertilizer; it contains more than 1% of nitrogen and more 1% of potassium. The using of only urine dissolved in eight-ten times by water, it is possible to recommend, when plants do not need phosphoric fertilizers. In another case urine should be used together with superphosphate or other phosphoric fertilizers. The urine diluted with water, is introduced in soil shortly before planting. It is closed up to exclude nitrogen losses.


From one  

From cattle in a year it is possible to get 9MT semi rotted manure (with a glance of losses on a pasture),

From a pig – 1.5-2MT,

From a sheep, goat – 0.8-0.9MT


The hen in a year gives 5-6 kg of dung,

Goose - 10-11kg,

Duck - 8-9kg



Ashes - the most valuable fertilization, it deserves the widest using at cultivation of a potato and vegetable cultures. It contains potassium, phosphorus, calcium, microelements - silicon, sulphur, etc. In soil ashes is scattered under the basic cultivation of soil or locally - in furrows, holes at additional fertilizing of plants. At continuous entering the dose depends on ashes kind. On 100m2 areas 20-30kg ashes of grassy plants or 60-70kg ashes of wood is introduced.

At entering of ashes into holes it is mixed carefully with soil, avoiding contact with sprouting seeds or roots of plants. For additional fertilizing 1-1.5 glasses of wood ashes is dissolved in a bucket of water. Thus fertilizing solution should be mixed more often. Because in ashes there is no nitrogen, the additional fertilizing with ashes is useful alternating to additional fertilizing with a solution of a mullein, liquid dung, urine of animals.

It is not allowed to mix ashes with solutions of organic fertilizers in order to avoid nitrogen losses.

It is necessary to store ashes in dry rooms, avoiding its humidifying


            Urea - nitric fertilizer; it is used with success on not sour soils in a combination with phosphoric and potash fertilizers. Urea is introduced at processing of a site from calculation 2kg on 100m2.

At additional fertilizing it is possible to introduce up to 600-700g urea. For liquid additional fertilizing 50-70g urea is dissolved in 10l water. This solution is watered on 10m2 areas. Additional fertilizing should be introduced to plants not later than the middle of summer, not to detain crop maturing. Urea should be stored in a dry premise.



For recognition of Nitric fertilizer, 1 tbsp of the fertilizer is dissolved in a glass of clear water, periodically stirring slowly with a wooden wand. Then a part of the solution is poured in a test glass, is added alkali in it (soda, ashes) and is looked, whether ammonia (in the absence of a smell of ammonia a test glass lower in hot water) is secreted. If ammonia is secreted, this is fertilizer nitric (ammoniac) … 

Potassium fertilizers are easy for distinguishing on appearance. The powder of white colour reminding table salt - a potassium chloride; a powder with an admixture of large crystals of various coloring - potassium salt; white or with tints of a brownish –yellow crystals - potassium sulphate.

Phosphoric fertilizers are characterized by such signs: white, sometimes a grey powder with the sour smell, often smeared - superphosphate “single”; the same fertilizer, but in granules - granulated superphosphate; dark grey or brown, thin milled odourless powder - phosphorite flour.


Cause of a failure of a drive of the frame of CD-ROM (DVD-ROM) often is sliding of take-up belt on a pulley of electromotor. For sliding elimination of the belt, the rubber ringlet is put on an electromotor pulley. The ringlet can be cut from rubber nipple hose from the bicycle inner tube. The equal ringlet is cut off in the thickness about 1mm from the hose.

The rubber ringlet can be put on a pulley without demolishing and without removing CD-ROM (DVD-ROM) from the place. If the frame is not advanced itself, it is necessary to advance manually by means of a needle or a metal paper clip. (By means of the needle push the fixer being in a special hole on the front panel). By means of tweezers the belt carefully is removed. By means of two tweezers the prepared ringlet is put on the pulley and aligned on the pulley middle. The belt is put into place.




Nitric fertilizers:

- An ammonium nitrate,

- Ammonium sulphate,

- Urea (carbamide).

Ammonium nitrate - high-speed fertilizer, contains 34-35% of nitrogen, is well dissolved in water, and slightly acidifies soil, therefore before its entering it is recommended to add 0.5kg of a lime on 1kg of the fertilizer.

Ammonium sulphate contains 20.8-21% of nitrogen, is well absorbed by soil, but acidifies it. Before entering into soil it is necessary to add 2kg of a chalk or 1.2kg of a lime on 1kg of the fertilizer.

Urea contains 46% of nitrogen, is well dissolved in water.


Phosphoric fertilizers:

- Superphosphate “simple”,

- Superphosphate “double”.

Superphosphate “simple”, contains from 14 to 19.5% of phosphorus (PrO5), quickly gets mixed up with soil in inactive connection and gradually turns into form less accessible to plants, practically does not acidify soil.

Superphosphate “double” (granular fertilizer) contains 45-48% of phosphorus. It is well dissolved in water, gets mixed up with soil in inactive connections, does not acidify soil


Potassium fertilizers:

- Potassium chloride,

- Potassium salt,

- Potassium sulphate.

The potassium chloride contains 52.4 – 56.9% of potassium oxide, is well dissolved in water, and contains a lot of chlorine, therefore the fertilizer it is better to Introduce in the autumn (for washing away of chlorine by rainfall).

Potassium salt contains from 30 to 40% of potassium oxide, is well dissolved in water. As well as the potassium chloride, contains a lot of chlorine. It also is better to Introduce in the autumn.

Potassium sulphate contains 45-50% of potassium oxide, is well dissolved in water, and does not contain the chlorine.


Fertilizers are introduced in the spring at soil cultivation and at dosing of plants. Ammonium sulphate can be introduced in the autumn. The potassium chloride and Potassium salt is more preferable for Introducing in the autumn.


        1kg flour, 1 glass of water, 2 - 3 onions, 2 eggs, salt

        Shred or finely chop 2 - 3 onions. Put in a cup with cold water and leave on 10 - 15 minutes. Then wring out in a glass. In a pot for dough pour a glass of warm water. Add 0.5 glasses of onion water, raw eggs. Properly shake up, salt. Pouring parts a flour, knead liquid dough on sour cream consistence. Warm up a frying pan, grease. Pour in 1 tbsp of dough and fry both sides.   


These are very tasty


        500g flour, 1 egg (for dough), 1 tsp salt, 6 eggs, 2 onions, 50g melted butter, salt - to taste.   

        From flour and eggs knead hard dough as on dumplings. Roll it in a sphere. Wrap a sphere in a napkin and leave for 10 minutes. After that prepare thin dough sheet by means of long rolling pin. Unroll it in thickness 2mm. Cut noodles from it. Boil the noodles in the salted boiling water. Replace them to a colander and allow to flow down moisture.

Chop onions as rings. Melt butter on a frying pan. Roast onions. Put noodles, fry together with onions before formation of a thin crust.

        Cover noodles with salted mix of raw egg whites and yolks. As soon as those will start to harden, serve up. From above strew chopped greens.


These are very tasty


        1kg flour, 2 glasses of milk, 2 tsp salt, 40g yeast

Dissolve the yeast in the warm milk. Bringing parts a flour in milk knead hard dough. Properly press down, form a sphere and put on a warm place for rising. Cut risen dough on 150-200g pieces and form balls. From them form flat breads in the thickness along the edges of 2cm, on the middle-0.5cm. Make punctures in a middle part with fork in the form of a circle. Cover with a napkin and leave for 10-20 minutes. Put flat breads on preliminary greased with fat pans. Bake flat breads in the oven heated approximately to 150OC up to formation of a ruddy crust.


These are very tasty


            For dough: 500g flour, 1 egg, 0.5 cups of warm water, 1 tsp salt.

For sauce: 500g meat, 100g oil, 3 — 4 onions, 10 sweet pepper, 5 — 6 tomatoes,  1 garlic, salt and pepper — to taste.

For design: 6 eggs, 1 bunch of greens (fennel, coriander), 1 laurel leaf, grape vinegar — to taste.

            Prepare not very hard dough, roll in a sphere. Cover with a damp napkin and leave to 10-15 min. Then divide dough for balls in size about a walnut. From these balls roll strips with hands in size and in the length about a thick pencil. Grease with vegetable oil that did not stick to each other. Flatten strips in tapes in the thickness in 2—3 mm, width in 2—3 cm.  Holding for both ends, extend longer tapes, striking the middle to board.  Tapes are turned out in size 1mm thickness and 40—50 cm long. Tear off slices from the tape in size about a coin and put in a pan with the salted boiling water. When dough slices will emerge upward, remove them with colander. Rinse them in cold water. Divide for the portions, put in kosa (the big bowl in capacity 0.5liter). Fill in sauce.  Sauce prepares so. Cut meat to small slices. Fry in the heated oil together with onion rings, chopped garlic. Add crushed sweet pepper and tomatoes (straws of a radish and tomato paste in the winter and in the spring). Add salt, pepper and a laurel leaf. Add water and cook on slow fire to readiness of all products.

            At serving up put fried eggs above manpar.


These are very tasty


            For the dough: 1kg flour, 2 cups of water, 2tsp of salt, 50g yeast.

For forcemeat: 1.5kg pumpkin, 500g onions, 200g cracklings or 150g fat, 1 tbsp sugar, 1 tsp of salt and ground pepper.

Knead yeast dough. When it will rise, divide into balls in size a walnut. Unroll them on thin round sheets. Prepare stuffing as follows. Clear ripe pumpkin of a peel and of seeds. Cut a pumpkin and fat in to cubes in the size 1 х 1 х 1cm. Chop onion. Mix all these products. Add salt, sugar and pepper. Mix all well.

Make quadrangular pies. Bake in an oven.


These are very tasty


            For the dough: 1kg flour, 2 eggs, 2 tsp salt, 0.5 cups of water.

For the gravy: 500g of meat, 3-4 potatoes 3-4 onions, 1 turnip, 3-4 tomatoes, 5-6 cloves of garlic, 2 peppers, 300g of cabbage, salt and spices - to taste.

300g fat for frying and stewing.

Knead the dough as for the dumplings. Roll out into a big thick sheet of 2-3mm. Sprinkle with flour. Fold like an accordion and cut the noodles into 4-5mm wide. Boil the noodles in boiling salted water. Remove and rinse 2-3 times in cold water. Transfer to a colander and leave to the leaking all the moisture.

Prepare Kayla (gravy). Cut the fat and meat into small slices, dice potatoes, shred carrots, radishes, cabbage, and sweet pepper, cut onions as rings, tomato into slices. Chop garlic. Melt the fat (instead of melted mutton fat can be used any other fat or vegetable oil). Slightly fry the onions in it. Put the meat and fry until they separate out the juice. Put the garlic, tomatoes, sweet pepper, and carrot. Fry all, stirring often, until half ready. Cover with water, bring to boil. Add the salt. Introduce spices, put the radish and cabbage. Simmer over very low heat until cooked all the products. If much moisture evaporates, pour a little broth in which noodles were cooked. Consistency should be semi- liquid.

When the sauce is ready, dip the noodles in boiling water, and put a layer on a dish. Pour sauce on top.


These are very tasty


            For the dough: 1kg flour, 2 eggs, 1 tsp salt, 0.5 tsp baking soda 1 cup vegetable oil for greasing.

For the gravy: 500g meat, 300g cabbage, 2 eggplant, 3-4 onions, 1 clove of garlic,

2-3 peppers, 2-3 tomatoes, laurel leaf, salt and spices - to taste.

Knead dough average hardness. Roll dough into a ball, wrap a napkin, put in a bowl and leave for 1 hour. Smear the dough with a salt solution (1 tsp salt, 0.5 tsp baking soda and 0.5 cups of warm water). By pressing down with fingers and fists, knead again well to salt solution is soaked into it. Then divide the dough is into small flat pieces, give them a form of balls with the size of a walnut. Place each ball on the board. Roll on their tops with the palms, form string with length and thickness of a pencil. Put them on a plate in rows. To string do not stick to each other and got stringiness, it is necessary to grease them with vegetable oil. Pull each string alone up to get form of vermicelli noodles. To do this, take both ends, and striking the middle of the string on to table and stretch. When the noodles will draw up to 1meter, fold in half and do this operation again. Fold again in half and pull round as vermicelli noodles. In this way, pull out all the strings. Cook strings in boiling salted water. Recline in a colander, rinse with cold water several times and set aside.

Prepare gravy. Melt down fat in the pot with a spherical bottom. Slightly fry the onions in it. Put the pieces of meat, fry. Put diced carrots. Stew all together with tomatoes or tomato paste. After that, cover with water. Bring to a boil, add salt and pepper.

When the sauce is ready, dip the noodles in boiling water, and put a layer on a dish. Pour sauce on top. Sprinkle with chopped greens and garlic. Serve up separately ground black pepper and vinegar


These are very tasty


            For the dough: 500g flour, 1 egg, 1 tsp Soapy, 0.5 cups of water.

For the stuffing: 1kg mutton flesh, 100g mutton fat, 500g onion, 0.5 cups of salted water, 1 tsp black pepper.

Prepare the hard dough, roll into a ball, and place in a bowl. Cover with a cloth and set aside for 10-15 minutes. Then divide into small balls the size of a walnut. Roll out each ball into thin round sheets (or thinly roll all of the dough with a long rolling stick into the sheet, cut into small squares on 10X10 cm).

Stuffing is prepared in the following manner. Cut the flesh of mutton (beef) into very small pieces ("sparrow tongues") or mince on meat grinder. Add chopped or sliced onion rings, black pepper, and salted water. Stir well, press down with fingers.

Place a tbsp of stuffing and a slice of fat on each round sheet (or square). Make a “Manta”. The raw manta should be covered with a cloth.

Manta is cooked on a steam. Grease the tiers of the steam pot – “Manti kaskan". Put manti on them, so that they do not touch each other. Sprinkle with cold water and simmer for 45 minutes.

Ready manti is served up in Kasa (large bowl 0.5l) 2-4 p per diner. Lightly sprinkle the broth and qatiq (kefir).


These are very tasty


            For the dough: 500g flour, 1 egg, 1 tsp salt.

For the stuffing: 1kg of purified pumpkin, 4-5 onions, 1 tsp of red pepper and salt, 100g mutton fat or 200g greaves from the fat.

Prepare the hard dough, roll into a ball, and place in a bowl. Cover with a cloth and set aside for 10-15 minutes. Then divide into small balls the size of a walnut. Roll out each ball into thin round sheets (or thinly roll all of the dough with a long rolling stick into the sheet, cut into small squares on 10X10 cm).

Stuffing is prepared in the following manner. Choose a ripe pumpkin. Peel and remove seeds. Grate or dice for 0.5 x0, 5cm. Add chopped onion, salt, pepper, greaves or small cubes of mutton fat. Mix well.

Place a tbsp of stuffing on each round sheet (or square). Make a “Manta”. The raw manta should be covered with a cloth.

Manta is cooked on a steam. Tiers of steam pans (manti kaskan) grease. Put manti, so that they do not touch each other. Sprinkle with cold water and simmer for 30-40 minutes.

At serving up lay manta on a dish. Smear with butter or sprinkle with sour cream.


These are very tasty


            For the dough: 500g flour, 1 egg, 1 tsp salt, 0.5 cups of water.

For stuffing: 500g lamb (or 250g lamb and 250g beef), 1 tsp salt 0.5 tsp black pepper, 4-5 onions.

Prepare the dough as for noodles, roll into a ball, and place in a bowl. Cover with a cloth and set aside for 10-12 minutes. Then again press down and roll out a big sheet 2mm thick and cut into squares of 4x4 or 5x5 cm. Put a tsp of minced meat in the middle of each square. Make dumplings "Chuchvara”. Put a little salt in boiling water, put the dumplings and cook. Dumplings are ready, when float on the surface of the broth, the dough is slightly wrinkled and the stuffing inside would be visible.

Remove them with a colander. Let to drain moisture well, place in dish. Sprinkle with chopped greens. Separately give vinegar or qatiq (kefir).


These are very tasty

            1-3 potatoes, 2-3 onions, 3 - 4 tomatoes, 1 garlic, 200grams of cabbage, 2-3 sweet pepper pods, 1 bunch of cilantro or dill, salt and pepper - to taste, 500g meat, 100g mutton fat.
Peel of the all vegetables. Potatoes cut into cubes 1x1x1 cm Shred carrots and cabbage into fine strips. Cut the tomatoes and onions into slices. Divide the garlic into cloves. Chop the sweet pepper and greens. Cut the meat and the fat into small pieces - as almonds. The dish is prepared individually for each diner on a steam. For this purpose for each person is taken a china Kasa (large bowl 0.5l). Put at the bottom the rate on a portion of diced potatoes. Put the chopped carrot, sliced tomatoes, onion rings, sweet pepper, chopped cabbage, 1-2 cloves of garlic. Sprinkle with chopped greens, salt and spices. Cover with slices of meat and fat. Put “AJABSANDA” into tiers of steam pan and steam for 1 hour.
Serve up in the same pot (Kasa), in which prepared.
“AJABSANDA” is good at low hemoglobin and anemia.


            500g lamb, 500g turnips, 3 onions, 0.5 tsp zira (cumin), pepper and salt - to taste.

Fat mutton with fat and bones cut into pieces of approximately 15-20g. Add salt, and spices, mix with chopped onions and set aside. Peel turnips, rinse under running water. Turnips cut into slices of a length of 5-7cm in width 3-4cm and 1cm thick. Add slices of meat and turnips together, put them in an enamel pot. Cover the dish, press down load and fill it with water so as to cover the contents. Put on fire. After boiling, immediately reduce the flame to the limit and simmer for 60-70 minutes.

Before serving, slices of meat and turnips are put on a plate. Sauce is submitted separately.


These are very tasty


            500g sour sort of quinces, 500g meat, 2 onions, salt, black pepper, 0.5 tsp zira (cumin).

Fat lamb or beef cut into slices the size of a walnut. Rib bones chop as slices of 2-3cm. Chop onion as rings. Peel quinces from the bloom. Quince split in half, remove seeds, then cut into slices 1cm in width. All products put together, add salt and spices. Put in a saucepan, cover with a plate. Press with load. Pour water at the level of the contents of the saucepan. Saucepan set over medium heat. Once the pot boils, reduce the heat to the minimum burning and simmer for 50 - 60 minute.

The slices of quince and meat put on the plate, and serve up. Pour the sauce separately in a cup.


These are very tasty